Subscribe to RSS
Multiple Force Platform Analysis of the Canine Trot: a New Approach to Assessing Basic Characteristics of Locomotion
Received for publication 06 February 1997
10 February 2018 (online)
Multiple platforms measure forces on different limbs simultaneously and provide a convenient means of determining locomotion parameters directly from force data. Four force platforms in series were used to measure force and positional data from simultaneous foot contacts of trotting dogs. Proper evaluation of fore and hindlimb forces from a complete stride requires a minimum of four platforms. Stride period, stride length, average velocity during the stride, relative phases of footfalls and duty factors can be determined directly from the force record. Impulse, average force and change in forward velocity can be determined by integrating the summed force/time curves over one stride period. These analytical techniques are illustrated using multiple platform data. Multiple platform analysis provides a comprehensive view of canine locomotion that cannot be achieved with a single platform.
A multiple force platform system designed to analyze ground reaction forces of quadrupedal animals is described. This system provides all force and positional data required for the description of each footfall in a full trotting stride. Methods for calculating key locomotion parameters from multiple platforms are reported and their relevance to gait analysis is discussed.
- 1 Alexander RMcN. The Gaits of Bipedal and Quadrupedal Animals. Int J Robotics Res 1984; 3: 49-59.
- 2 Alexander RMcN, Jayes AS. A dynamic sililarity hypothesis for the gaits of quadrupedal animals. J Zool 1983; 201: 135-52.
- 3 Biewener AA. Biomechanics of mammalian terrestrial locomotion. Science 1990; 250: 1097-103.
- 4 Biewener AA. Biomechanics: Structures and systems – A practical approach. New York: Oxford University Press; 1992
- 5 Bryant JD, Bennet MB, Brust J, Alexander RMcN. Forces exerted on the ground by galloping dogs (Canis familiaris). J Zool 1987; 213: 193-203.
- 6 Budsberg SC, Verstrate MC, Soutas-Little RW. Force plate analysis of the walking gait in healthy dogs. Am J Vet Res 1987; 48: 915-8.
- 7 Budsberg SC, Verstraete MC, Soutas-Little RW, Flo GL, Probst CW. Force plate analyses before and after stabilization of canine stifles for cruciate injury. Am J Vet Res 1988; 49: 1522-4.
- 8 Budsberg SC, Jevens DJ, Brown J, Foutz TL, DeCamp CE, Reece L. Evaluation of limb symmetry indices, using ground reaction forces in healthy dogs. Am J Vet Res 1993; 54: 1569-74.
- 9 Budsberg SC, Verstraete MC, Brown J, Reece L. Vertical loading rates in clinically normal dogs at a trot. Am J Vet Res 1995; 56: 1275-80.
- 10 Budsberg SC, Chambers JN, Van Lue SL, Foutz TL, Reece L. Prospective evaluation of ground reaction forces in dogs undergoing unilateral total hip replacement. Am J Vet Res 1996; 57: 1781-5.
- 11 Cavagna GA, Heglund NC, Taylor CR. Mechanical work in terrestrial locomotion, two basic mechanisms for minimizing energy expenditure. Am J Physiol 1977; 233: R243-R61.
- 12 Cavagna GA, Heglund NC, Taylor CR. Mechanics and scaling of terrestrial locomotion. In: Scale Effects in Animal Locomotion. London: Academic Press Ltd.; 1977: 111-25.
- 13 Cavagna GA. Force platforms as ergometers. J Appl Physiol 1985; 39: 174-9.
- 14 Crowe A, Schiereck P, De Boer RW, Keessen W. Characterization of human gait by means of body centre of mass oscillations derived from ground reaction forces. IEEE Transactions of Biomedical Engineering 1995; 42: 293-303.
- 15 Dogan S, Manley PA, Vanderby R, Kohles SS, Hartman M. Canine intersegmental hip joint forces and moments before and after total hip replacement. J Biomechanics 1991; 24: 397-407.
- 16 Deuland R, Bartel DL, Antonson E. Forceplate technique for canine gait analysis of total hip and excision arthroplasty. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1977; 13: 547-52.
- 17 Farley CT, Blickhan R, Saito J, Taylor CR. Hopping frequency in humans: A test of how springs set stride frequency in bouncing gaits. J Appl Physiol 1991; 71: 2127-32.
- 18 Goslow GE, Seeherman HJ, Taylor CR, Mc- Cutchin MN, Heglund NC. Electrical activity ctivity and relative length changes of dog limb muscles as a function of speed and gait. J exp Biol 1981; 94: 15-42.
- 19 Gray J. Animal Locomotion. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson; 1968
- 20 Griffon DJ, McLaughlin RM, Rousch JK. Vertical ground reaction force redistribution during experimentally induced shoulder lameness in dogs. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 1994; 7: 154-7.
- 21 Heglund NC, Taylor CR, McMahon TA. Scaling of stride frequency and gait to animal size: Mice to horses. Science 1974; 186: 1112-3.
- 22 Heglund NC, Taylor CR. Speed, stride frequency and energy cost per stride: How do they change with body size and gait. J exp Biol 1988; 138: 301-18.
- 23 Heglund NA. A Simple design for a forceplate to measure ground reaction forces. J exp Biol 1981; 93: 333-8.
- 24 Hottinger HA, DeCamp CE, Oliver NB, Hauptman JG, Soutas-Little RW. Noninvasive kinematical analysis of the walk in healthy large-breed dogs. Am J Vet Res 1996; 57: 381-8.
- 25 Jacobs NA, Skorecki J, Charnley J. Analysis of the vertical component of force in normal and pathological gait. J Biomechanics 1972; 5: 11-34.
- 26 Jayes AS, Alexander RMcN. Mechanics of locomotion of dogs (Canis familiaris) and sheep (Ovis aries). J Zool 1978; 185: 289-308.
- 27 Jevens DJ, Hauptman JD, DeCamp CE, Budsberg SC, Soutas-Little RW. Contributions to variance in force-plate analysis of gait in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1993; 54: 612-5.
- 28 Jevens DJ, DeCamp CE, Hauptman J, Braden TD, Richter M, Robinson R. Use of force-plate analysis of gait to compare two surgical techniques for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1996; 57: 389-93.
- 29 McLaughlin RM, Roush JK. Effects of subject stance time and velocity on ground reaction forces in clinically normal greyhounds at the trot. Am J Vet Res 1994; 55: 1666-71.
- 30 McLaughlin R, Roush JK. Effects of increasing velocity on braking and propulsion times during force plate gait analysis in greyhounds. Am J Vet Res 1995; 56: 159-61.
- 31 O' Connor BL, Visco DM, Heck DA, Meyers SL, Brandt KD. Gait alterations in dogs after transection of the anterior cruciate ligament. Arthritis and Rheumatism 1989; 23: 1142-7.
- 32 Page AE, Allan C, Jasty M, Harrigan TP, Bragdon CR, Harris WH. Determination of loading parameters in the canine hip in vivo. J Biomechanics 1993; 26: 571-9.
- 33 Riggs CM, DeCamp CE, Soutas-Little RW, Braden TD, Richter MA. Effects of subject velocity on force plate-measured ground reaction forces in healthy greyhounds at the trot. Am J Vet Res 1993; 54: 1523-6.
- 34 Rumph PF, Kincaid SA, Baird DK, Kammermann JR, Visco DM, Goetze LF. Vertical ground reaction force distribution during experimentally induced acute synovitis in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1993; 54: 365-9.
- 35 Rumph PF, Lander JE, Kincaid SA, Baird DK, Kammermann JR, Visco DM. Ground reaction force profiles from force platform gait analysis of clinically normal mesomorphic dogs at the trot. Am J Vet Res 1994; 55: 756-60.
- 36 Rumph PF, Kincaid SA, Visco DM. Baird DK, Kammermann JR, West MS. Redistribution of vertical ground reaction force in dogs with experimentally induced chronic hindlimb lameness. Veterinary Surgery 1995; 24: 384-9.
- 37 Schneider E, Chao EY. Fourier analysis of ground reaction forces in normals and patients with knee joint disease. J Biomechanics 1983; 16: 591-601.
- 38 Winter DA. Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement. (2nd ed.).. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1990