Nervenheilkunde 2015; 34(12): 955-963
DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1627650
Schattauer GmbH

Der bestirnte Himmel über mir und das moralische Gesetz in mir

Ehrfurcht, Naturerleben und SozialverhaltenThe starry sky above me and the moral law in meAwe, nature and social behavior
M. Spitzer
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
22 January 2018 (online)


  • Literatur

  • 1 Anonymus. Why go outside when you have an iPhone? America’s national parks struggle to attract young visitors. The Economist 17.8.2013
  • 2 Antonov I, Antonova I, Kandel ER, Hawkins RD. The contribution of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity to classical conditioning in Aplysia. The Journal of Neuroscience 2001; 21: 6413-6422.
  • 3 Augustinus: Confessiones, Buch 10: 8.
  • 4 Beadle JN, Sheehan AH, Dahlben B, Gutchess AH. Aging, empathy, and prosociality. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2015; 70: 215-224.
  • 5 Berman MG, Jonides J, Kaplan S. The cognitive benefits of interactingwith nature. Psychological Science 2008; 19: 1207-1212.
  • 6 Berman MG, Kross E, Krpan KM, Askren MK, Burson A, Deldin PJ. et al. Interacting with nature improves cognition and affect for individuals with depression. Journal of Affective Disorders 2012; 140: 300-305.
  • 7 Berto R. Exposure to restorative environments helps restore attentional capacity. Journal of Environmental Psychology 2005; 25: 249-259.
  • 8 Bratman GN, Daily GC, Levy BJ, Gross JJ. The benefits of nature experience: Improved affect and cognition. Landscape and Urban Planning 2015; 138: 41-50.
  • 9 Bratman GN, Hamilton JP, Daily GC. The impacts of nature experienceon human cognitive function and mental health. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2012; 1249: 118-136.
  • 10 Carey JR, Bhatt E, Nagpal A. Neuroplasticity promoted by task complexity. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2005; 33: 24-31.
  • 11 Darbor KE, Lench HC, Davis WE, Hicks JA. Experiencing versus contemplating: Language use during descriptions of awe and wonder. Cogn Emot 2014; 15: 1-9.
  • 12 Diessner R, Iyer R, Smith MM, Haidt J. Who engages with moral Beauty?. Journal of Moral Education 2013; 42: 139-163.
  • 13 Frantz C, Mayer FS, Norton C, Rock M. There is no “I” in nature: The influence of self-awareness on connectedness to nature. Journal of Environmental Psychology 2005; 25: 427-436.
  • 14 Fredrickson L, Anderson D. A qualitative exploration of the wilderness experience as a source of spiritual inspiration. J Environ Psychol 1999; 19: 21-39.
  • 15 Gladwell VF, Brown DK, Barton JL, Tarvainen MP, Kuoppa P, Pretty J. et al. The effects of views of nature on autonomic control. European Journal of Applied Physiology 2012; 112: 3379-3386.
  • 16 Hartig T, Evans G, Jamner L, Davis D, Garling T. Tracking restoration in natural and urban field settings. Journal of Environmental Psychology 2003; 23: 109-123.
  • 17 Hartig T, Mitchell R, de Vries S, Frumkin H. Nature and health. Annual Review of Public Health 2014; 35: 207-228.
  • 18 Johnsen SÅK, Rydstedt LW. Active use of the natural environment for emotion regulation. Europe’s Journal of Psychology 2013; 09: 798-819.
  • 19 Kaplan S. The restorative benefits of nature: Toward an integrative framework. Journal of Environmental Psychology 1995; 15: 169-182.
  • 20 Keltner D, Haidt J. Approaching awe, a moral, spiritual, and aesthetic emotion. Cognition and Emotion 2003; 17: 297-314.
  • 21 Keniger LE, Gaston KJ, Irvine KN, Fuller R. What are the benefits of interacting with nature?. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2013; 10: 913-935.
  • 22 Knop K, Hefner D, Schmitt S, Vorderer P. Mediatisierung Mobil. Handy- und mobile Internetnutzung von Kindern und Jugendlichen. Landesanstalt für Medien Nordrhein-Westfalen. Schriftenreihe Medienforschung, Band 77, 2015
  • 23 Kogan A, Oveis C, Carr EW, Gruber J, Mauss IB, Shallcross A, Impett EA, van der Lowe I, Hui B, Cheng C, Keltner D. Vagal activity is quadratically related to prosocial traits, prosocial emotions, and observer perceptions of prosociality. J Pers Soc Psychol 2014; 107: 1051-1063.
  • 24 Mayer FS, Frantz CM. The connectedness to nature scale: A measure of individuals’ feeling in community with nature. Journal of Environmental Psychology 2004; 24: 503-515.
  • 25 Mayer FS, Frantz CM, Bruehlman-Senecal E, Dolliver K. Why is nature beneficial? The role of connectedness to nature. Environ Behav 2009; 41: 607-643.
  • 26 Nisbet EK, Zelenski JM. Underestimating nearby nature. Psychol Sci 2011; 22: 1101-1106.
  • 27 Piff PK, Dietze P, Feinberg M, Stancato DM, Keltner D. Awe, the small self, and prosocial behavior. J Pers Soc Psychol 2015; 108: 883-899.
  • 28 Piff PK, Zhang JW, Keltner D. On nature and prosocial behavior. In Bird W, van den Bosch M. (eds.) Nature and Public Health: The Role of Nature in Improving the Health of a Population. Oxford: University Press; 2015
  • 29 Powell J, Lewis PA, Roberts N. García-Fiñana M, Dunbar RIM. Orbital prefrontal cortex volume predicts social network size: An imaging study of individual differences in humans. Proceedings of the Royal So ciety 2012 1 February, doi: 10.1098/rspb.2011.2574.
  • 30 Richards R, McGee R, Williams SM, Welch D, Hancox RJ. Adolescent screen time and attachment to peers and parents. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2010; 164: 258-262.
  • 31 Sagi Y, Tavor I, Hofstetter S, Tzur-Moryosef S, Blumenfeld-Katzir T, Assaf Y. Learning in the fast lane: new insights into neuroplasticity. Neuron 2012; 22: 1195-1203.
  • 32 Sallet J, Mars RB, Noonan MP, Andersson JL, O’Reilly JX, Jbabdi S, Croxon PL, Jenkinson M, Miller KL, Rushworth MFS. Social network size affects neural circuits in macaques. Science 2011; 334: 697-700.
  • 33 Skár M, Krogh E. Changes in children’s naturebased experiences near home: From spontaneous play to adult-controlled, planned and organised activities. Children’s Geographies 2009; 07: 339-354.
  • 34 Spitzer M. Landschaft. Ästhetik von Petrarca bis zum Titan, über Darwin und den Tsunami. Nervenheilkunde 2005; 24: 137-143.
  • 35 Spitzer M. Natur und Gemeinschaft. Auswirkungen des Naturerlebens auf prosoziale Motive. Nervenheilkunde 2009; 28: 773-777.
  • 36 Spitzer M. Cyberkrank!. München: Droemer; 2015
  • 37 Tyrväinen L, Ojala A, Korpela K, Lanki T, Tsunetsugu Y, Kagawa T. The influence of urban green environments on stress relief measures: A field experiment. Journal of Environmental Psychology 2014; 38: 1-9.
  • 38 Vereinte Nationen 2015. World Urbanization Prospects.
  • 39 Weinstein N, Przybylski AK, Ryan RM. Can nature make us more caring? Effects of immersion in nature on intrinsic aspirations and generosity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 2009; 35: 1315-1329.
  • 40 Zhang JW, Piff PK, Iyer R, Koleva S, Keltner D. An occasion for unselfing: Beautiful nature leads to prosociality. Journal of Environmental Psychology 2014; 37: 61-72.
  • 41 Zhang JW, Howell RT, Iyer R. Engagement with natural beauty moderates the positive relation between connectedness with nature and psychological well-being. Journal of Environmental Psychology 2014; 38: 55-63.
  • 42 Rudd M, Vohs KD, Aaker J. Awe expands people’s perception of time, alters decision making, and enhances well-being. Psychological Science 2012; 23: 1130-1136.
  • 43 Turner WR, Nakamura T, Dinetti M. Global urbanization and the sepa-ration of humans from nature. Bioscience 2004; 54: 585-590.
  • 44 Campos B, Shiota MN, Keltner D, Gonzaga GC, Goetz JL. What is shared, what is different?. Core relational themes and expressive displays of eight positive emotions. Cognition & Emotion 2013; 27: 37-52.