Semin Liver Dis 2018; 38(01): 001-013
DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1627456
Review Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children

Jake P. Mann
1   Department of Paediatrics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
,
Luca Valenti
2   Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Policlinico Milano, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy
,
Eleonora Scorletti
3   Human Development and Health Academic Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom
,
Christopher D. Byrne
3   Human Development and Health Academic Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom
4   National Institute for Health Research Southampton Biomedical Research Centre (in Nutrition), University of Southampton and University Hospital Southampton National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust, Southampton, United Kingdom
5   Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit, University of Southampton and University Hospital Southampton National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust, Southampton, United Kingdom
,
Valerio Nobili
6   Hepatometabolic Disease Unit, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS (Instituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico), Rome, Italy
7   Department of Pediatrics, University “La Sapienza,” Rome, Italy
› Author Affiliations
Funding No external funding supported the research described in this manuscript. This research did not receive any specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sector.
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
22 February 2018 (online)

Abstract

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is one of the most common hepatic diseases in children who present with particular risk factors including obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and/or a predisposing genetic background. The worldwide prevalence of NAFLD in children is a worrying phenomenon because this disease is closely associated with the development of both cirrhosis and cardiometabolic syndrome in adulthood. To date, the etiopathogenesis of primary NAFLD in children is unknown. Understanding the pathogenetic mechanisms provides the basis to characterize early predictors of the disease and noninvasive diagnostic tools and to design novel specific treatments and possible management strategies. Despite a few clinical trials on the use of antioxidants combined with lifestyle intervention for NAFLD, no treatment exists for children with NAFLD. In this review, the authors provide an overview of current concepts in epidemiology, histological features, etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of NAFLD in pediatric population.

Authors' Contribution

All authors equally participated to the manuscript, approved the final version as submitted, and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work.