Effect of Homeopathic Dilutions of Cuprum Arsenicosum on the Electrical Properties of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride-Co-Hexafluoropropylene)
26 September 2016
30 December 2017
27 February 2018 (eFirst)
Background We report the effects of nanoparticles in homeopathic preparations of copper salts on the electrical properties of polymer film. Previous work showed that the incorporation of metal-derived homeopathic medicines increases the dielectric constant and alternating current (AC) conductivity of an electroactive polymer film that is commonly used as a capacitor in the electronic industry.
We report here the effect of dilution of one homeopathic medicine, Cuprum arsenicosum (CuAs), at 200C potency on the electrical properties of the polymer film of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene).
Methods CuAs 200c was incorporated in the film by the solution casting method. The electrical characteristics were measured at different frequencies using an inductance, capacitance, and resistance meter. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was performed to detect phase change in the polymer film due to the incorporation of CuAs. Morphology and particle size were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy.
Results At 10 kHz frequency, both dielectric constant and AC conductivity increased approximately 18 times for the polymer film when incorporated with 2 mL CuAs at 200C potency. FTIR indicated the increase in conducting phase, while FESEM and EDX confirmed the presence of spherical CuAs particles.
Conclusion The incorporation of CuAs in the electroactive polymer film enhances the conductivity and dielectric constant. We conclude that these changes arise from the change in phase of the polymer film, and because of the presence of two different metals that affects the interfacial polarization.
- 1 Shah R. Standardization of the potentizing machine and quantification of impact of potentisation. Ind J Res Homoeopathy 2016; 10: 126-132
- 2 Upadhyay RP, Nayak C. Homoeopathy emerging as nanomedicine. Int J High Dilution Res. 2011; 10: 299-310
- 3 Nandy P, Bhandary S, Das S, Basu R, Bhattacharya S. Nanoparticles and membrane anisotropy. Homeopathy 2011; 100: 194
- 4 Ghosh S, Chakraborty M, Das S, Basu R, Nandy P. Effect of different potencies of nanomedicine Cuprum metallicum on membrane fluidity – a biophysical study. Am J Homeopathic Medicine 2014; 107: 161-169
- 5 Bhandary S, Das S, Basu R, Bhattacharyya S, Nandy P. Effect of Aconitum napellus on liposomal microviscosity. Int J Emerg Technol Sci Eng 2011; 3: 1-5
- 6 Kar S, Bandyopadhyay P, Chakraborty S. , et al. Derivation of an empirical relation between the size of the nanoparticle and the potency of homeopathic medicines. Int J High Dilution Res 2015; 14: 2-7
- 7 Nandy P. A review of basic research on homeopathy from a physicists's point of view. Ind J Res Homoeopathy 2015; 9: 141-151
- 8 Chikramane PS, Kalita D, Suresh AK, Kane SG, Bellare JR. Why extreme dilutions reach non-zero asymptotes: a nanoparticulate hypothesis based on froth flotation. Langmuir 2012; 28: 15864-15875
- 9 Chikramane PS, Suresh AK, Bellare JR, Kane SG. Extreme homeopathic dilutions retain starting materials: a nanoparticulate perspective. Homeopathy 2010; 99: 231-242
- 10 Rajendran ES. Field emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) studies of centesimal scale potencies of the homeopathic drug Lycopodium clavatum . Am J Homeopath Med 2015; 108: 9-18
- 11 Bandyopadhyay P, Nandy P, Basu R, Bhar DS, Das S. Effect of dilution on thermovoltage generation using homeopathic nanomedicine Zincum oxydatum . Int J Innov Res Sci Eng 2015; 3: 225-230
- 12 Bandyopadhyay P, Nandy P, Basu R, Bhar DS, Das S. Thermo-voltage generation using homeopathic medicine. Ind Photobiol News Lett 2016; 53: 13-16
- 13 Bandyopadhyay P, Chakraborty S, Basu R. , et al. Efficiency of a dye-sensitized photo-electrochemical device using thionine and triturated zinc oxide at different potency. Energy Sourc A, Recovery Util Environ Effects 2016. In press
- 14 Mondal A, Basu R, Das S, Nandy P. Increased quantum efficiency in hybrid photoelectrochemical cell consisting of thionine and zinc oxide nanoparticles. J Photochem Photobiol Chem 2010; 211: 143-146
- 15 Martins P, Lopes AC, Lanceros-Mendez S. Electroactive phases of poly(vinylidene fluoride): determination, processing and applications. Prog Polym Sci 2013; 39: 683-706
- 16 Nalwa HS. Handbook of Low and High Dielectric Constant Materials and Their Applications, Volume 1: Materials and Processing. 1st ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 1999
- 17 Kingon AI, Maria JP, Streiffer SK. Alternative dielectrics to silicon dioxide for memory and logic devices. Nature 2000; 406: 1032-1038
- 18 Singh R, Ulrich RK. High and low dielectric constant materials. Electrochem Soc Interface 1999; 8: 26-30
- 19 Chatterjee A, Paul BK, Kar S. , et al. Effect of ultrahigh diluted homeopathic medicines on the electrical properties of PVDF-HFP. Int J High Dilution Res 2016; 15: 10-17
- 20 Paul BK, Kar S, Bandyopadhyay P. , et al. Significant enhancement of dielectric and conducting properties of electroactive polymer polyvinylidene fluoride films: an innovative use of Ferrum metallicum at different concentrations. Ind J Res Homoeopathy 2016; 10: 52-58
- 21 Gayen AL, Paul BK, Roy D. , et al. Enhanced dielectric properties and conductivity of triturated copper and cobalt nanoparticles-doped PVDF-HFP film and their possible use in electronic industry. J Material Res Innovations 2017; 21: 166-171
- 22 Gayen AL, Mondal D, Roy D. , et al. Improvisation of electrical properties of PVDF-HFP: use of novel metallic nanoparticles. J Mater Sci Mater Electron 2017; 28: 14798-14808
- 23 Jonscher AK. Dielectric relaxation in solids. J Phys D Appl Phys 1999; 32: R57-R70