CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Ind J Car Dis Wom 2017; 02(04): 094-098
DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1622966
Review Article
Women in Cardiology and Related Sciences

Refractory Angina—An Overview and Recent Trends

Meenakshi Kadiyala
1  Department of Cardiology, Saveetha Medical College and Hospital, Tandalam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Rameshwar Roopchandar
2  Department of General Medicine, Saveetha Medical College, Tandalam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Chandrshekaran Krishnaswamy
3  Department of Medicine, Mayo School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, United States
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
04 May 2018 (online)


Because of improvement in survival from coronary artery disease and increasing life expectancy of the population, chronicity and resistance to therapy have become growing problems confronting the cardiologist. Refractory angina pectoris is an entity based on clinical diagnosis, and it refers to recurrent and sustained chest pain more than 3 months duration caused by coronary insufficiency that is unamenable to conventional modalities of treatment, including drugs, percutaneous coronary interventions, or coronary bypass grafting. Individuals with this entity may have an impaired quality of life, with recurrent angina, poor general health and psychological distress impairing functional and productive sustenance. A multitude of therapeutic options exists for patients with refractory angina pectoris, and randomized trials have shown them to be reasonably effective in reducing symptoms, though further research is warranted.