Development of Vaccine Preferences among Parents of Newborns
09 August 2017
11 December 2017
17 January 2018 (eFirst)
Objective Vaccine hesitancy and refusal and the resulting outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases continue to be an issue today. Most of contemporary research on these issues has focused on underlying characteristics of non-vaccinators and ambivalent parents; however, few studies have looked into how or when vaccine preferences develop. In this study, we sought to explore when parental preferences for vaccines develop in relation to a pregnancy. We also examined self-reported influences on vaccine decision making.
Methods We recruited and administered a short survey to parents at the North Carolina Women's Hospital in Chapel Hill, NC, following the birth of their child from February to April 2015.
Results A total of 166 parents (55%) completed the entire survey. Seventy-two percent of surveyed parents reported deciding on their vaccine preferences for their newborn before conception. Parents who were older, Caucasian, married, and had attained higher levels of education were significantly more likely to develop preconception vaccine preferences. The presence of partner conversations in the past and the desire for more information on vaccines were also significant predictors of preconception vaccine preference development. After logistic regression adjustment, only education level and past vaccine conversations remained significant. The most common influences for vaccine decision making were family, friends, and medical staff and organizations.
Conclusion Our study documents that a majority of parents establish vaccine decision making and preferences before conception. Notable influences from friends, family, and medical sources are part of the process. These findings suggest that vaccine information and interventions currently are given too late in the vaccine preference decision-making process.
- 1 Fair E, Murphy TV, Golaz A, Wharton M. Philosophic objection to vaccination as a risk for tetanus among children younger than 15 years. Pediatrics 2002; 109 (01) E2
- 2 Bedford H, Lansley M. More vaccines for children? Parents' views. Vaccine 2007; 25 (45) 7818-7823
- 3 Bardenheier B, Yusuf H, Schwartz B, Gust D, Barker L, Rodewald L. Are parental vaccine safety concerns associated with receipt of measles-mumps-rubella, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids with acellular pertussis, or hepatitis B vaccines by children?. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004; 158 (06) 569-575
- 4 Wei F, Mullooly JP, Goodman M. , et al. Identification and characteristics of vaccine refusers. BMC Pediatr 2009; 9: 18 . doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-9-18
- 5 Hamilton M, Corwin P, Gower S, Rogers S. Why do parents choose not to immunise their children?. N Z Med J 2004; 117 (1189): U768
- 6 Hontelez JA, Hahné SJ, Oomen P, de Melker H. Parental attitude towards childhood HBV vaccination in The Netherlands. Vaccine 2010; 28 (04) 1015-1020
- 7 Smith PJ, Humiston SG, Parnell T, Vannice KS, Salmon DA. The association between intentional delay of vaccine administration and timely childhood vaccination coverage. Public Health Rep 2010; 125 (04) 534-541
- 8 Evans M, Stoddart H, Condon L, Freeman E, Grizzell M, Mullen R. Parents' perspectives on the MMR immunisation: a focus group study. Br J Gen Pract 2001; 51 (472) 904-910
- 9 Betsch C, Ulshöfer C, Renkewitz F, Betsch T. The influence of narrative v. statistical information on perceiving vaccination risks. Med Decis Making 2011; 31 (05) 742-753
- 10 Betsch C, Renkewitz F, Betsch T, Ulshöfer C. The influence of vaccine-critical websites on perceiving vaccination risks. J Health Psychol 2010; 15 (03) 446-455
- 11 Sadaf A, Richards JL, Glanz J, Salmon DA, Omer SB. A systematic review of interventions for reducing parental vaccine refusal and vaccine hesitancy. Vaccine 2013; 31 (40) 4293-4304
- 12 Fu LY, Bonhomme LA, Cooper SC, Joseph JG, Zimet GD. Educational interventions to increase HPV vaccination acceptance: a systematic review. Vaccine 2014; 32 (17) 1901-1920
- 13 Kaufman J, Synnot A, Ryan R. , et al. Face to face interventions for informing or educating parents about early childhood vaccination. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 5 (05) CD010038
- 14 Vannice KS, Salmon DA, Shui I. , et al. Attitudes and beliefs of parents concerned about vaccines: impact of timing of immunization information. Pediatrics 2011; 127 (Suppl. 01) S120-S126
- 15 Harmsen IA, Lambooij MS, Ruiter RA. , et al. Psychosocial determinants of parents' intention to vaccinate their newborn child against hepatitis B. Vaccine 2012; 30 (32) 4771-4777
- 16 Harmsen IA, Ruiter RA, Paulussen TG, Mollema L, Kok G, de Melker HE. Factors that influence vaccination decision-making by parents who visit an anthroposophical child welfare center: a focus group study. Adv Prev Med 2012; 2012: 175694 . doi: 10.1155/2012/175694
- 17 Harmsen IA, Mollema L, Ruiter RA, Paulussen TG, de Melker HE, Kok G. Why parents refuse childhood vaccination: a qualitative study using online focus groups. BMC Public Health 2013; 13 (01) 1183 doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-1183
- 18 Harmsen IA, Doorman GG, Mollema L, Ruiter RA, Kok G, de Melker HE. Parental information-seeking behaviour in childhood vaccinations. BMC Public Health 2013; 13 (01) 1219 doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-1219
- 19 Romley J, Goutam P, Sood N. National survey indicates that individual vaccination decisions respond positively to community vaccination rates. PLoS One 2016; 11 (11) e0166858 . doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0166858