J Pediatr Infect Dis 2018; 13(01): 063-069
DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1617414
Original Article
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Endocrinological Abnormalities and Growth Impairment in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Children

Abhishek Pandey
1  Command Hospital Western Command, Chandigarh, India
,
B. M. John
2  Department of Pediatrics, AF Hospital, Bengaluru, India
,
Rakesh Gupta
3  Armed Forces Medical College Pune, India
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

07 April 2017

23 November 2017

Publication Date:
16 January 2018 (eFirst)

Abstract

Background Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an important emerging disease and many children are surviving into adulthood with effective antiretroviral therapy. Growth dysregulation is common in these children and endocrine abnormalities are likely to be a possible comorbidity. There is a paucity of data on these endocrinological abnormalities in this population. Against this background, a study to evaluate the endocrinological profile in HIV-infected children and its relationship with growth failure was performed.

Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed in children less than 18 years attending the pediatric HIV clinic at a tertiary care hospital in central India. Blood samples for T3, T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) were collected during routine visit, preserved at –70°C, and subsequently assayed. Statistical analysis for the data with respect to the endocrinological abnormalities and growth failure was performed.

Results A total of 100 children were included in the study. The prevalence of growth failure was high. Nineteen percent children had height less than − 3 standard deviation (SD) and 59% children had height less than 2SD. The prevalence of endocrinological abnormalities was also high. Fifty-four percent children had low T3 levels, 12% had low T4 levels, 4% had high TSH levels, 44% had low cortisol levels, and 25% had low DHEA. Fifty-eight percent children had low GH levels, while IGFBP3 levels were low in the entire cohort. There was a statistically significant association between growth failure and levels of T3 and GH.

Conclusion Our results show a high prevalence of growth failure and endocrinological abnormalities in HIV-infected children. A significant association between growth failure and endocrine abnormalities was found for T3 and GH.