J Pediatr Infect Dis 2018; 13(01): 010-014
DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1612605
Review Article
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Might miRNAs Be Related to Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1? A Short Review on Putative Viral miRNAs Encoded by HIV-1

Ayşe Rüveyda Uğur
Division of Medical Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey
,
Mehmet Özdemir
Division of Medical Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

19 October 2017

07 November 2017

Publication Date:
11 December 2017 (eFirst)

Abstract

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded small noncoding RNA molecules that are 22 to 25 nucleotides in length. They are implicated in the regulation of the immune response by modulating differentiation and proliferation of immune cells, production of cytokine types, and activation of the intracellular signaling pathways through posttranscriptional mechanisms. Although their actual functions are not yet fully understood, viral miRNAs are thought to help viruses to replicate and evade host immune response important in infectiousness. The determinants affecting the infectiousness of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and progression to the disease state vary according to several host and viral factors. Interestingly, mother-to-child transmission rates are as low as 5 to 15%, even when the mother is not receiving antiretroviral therapy. Higher HIV-1 viral loads, and recent maternal infection, are associated with higher transmission rates. Also, cellular tropism is a well-known phenomenon in HIV-1 pathogenesis. Further, cellular and viral miRNAs seem to be involved in the pathogenesis and infectiousness of HIV-1. The aim of this review is to outline the history of the discovery of HIV-1-viral miRNAs and the evidence for their role in pathogenesis.