J Pediatr Neurol 2017; 15(06): 338-340
DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1609055
Erratum
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Erratum: Pediatric Motor Stereotypies: An Updated Review

Ahmed H. Subki
Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
,
Mohammed S. Alsallum
Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
,
Majed N. Alnefaie
Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
,
Abdulaziz M. Alkahtani
Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
,
Sameer A. Almagamsi
Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
,
Zaher S. Alshehri
Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
,
Rayyan A. Kinsara
Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
,
Mohammed M. Jan
Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
30 November 2017 (online)

It has been brought to the Publisher's attention that [Tables 1] and [2] were not attributed correctly to their sources in the above article published in the Journal of Pediatric Neurology, Volume 15, Number 4, 2017 (DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1602256). The updated tables along with their source details appear as follows:

Table 1

Differentiating motor tics from stereotypies

Tics

Stereotypies

Age at onset

6–7 y

< 2 y

Pattern

Variable action with wax and wane

Constant, fixed, and predictable

Movements

Eye blinks, facial grimace, head twists, or shoulder shrugs

Arms/hands (flap, wave), may involve the whole body (rock/head nod)

Vocalization

Sniffing, throat clearing

Moan, humming with movement

Rhythm

Rapid, sudden, random

Rhythmic

Duration

Intermittent, brief, and abrupt

Intermittent, continuous, and prolonged

Severity

Increase until early adolescence

Gradually improve during later childhood

Premonitory urge

Yes

No

Trigger

Excitement, stress

Excitement, stress, also while engrossed in an activity

Subjective experience

Dislike it, and may even deny its presence

Most like it, with no discomfort

Suppression

Brief, voluntary (but have increased “inner tension”)

With distraction, rarely with conscious effort

Distraction

Reduction of tics

Stops

Family history

Frequently positive

Might be positive

Treatment

Clonidine, anti-dopaminergic drugs

Behavioral therapy

Source: Adapted from Mahone EM, Bridges D, Prahme C, Singer HS. Repetitive arm and hand movements (complex motor stereotypies) in children. J Pediatr 2004;145(3):391–395; Singer HS, Mink JW, Gilbert DL, Jankovic J. Motor stereotypies. In: Movement Disorders in Childhood.10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Butterworth-Heinemann (Elsevier); 2016:109–125.


Table 2

Etiological classification of motor stereotypies

Type

Examples

Primary

Common behaviors

Rocking, head banging, finger drumming, pencil tapping, hair twisting

Head nodding

Complex motor movements

Hand and arm flapping/waving

Secondary

Autism

Infantile autism, Asperger's syndrome, pervasive developmental disability, Rett's syndrome

Mental retardation

Sensory deprivation

Congenital blindness/deafness, caging, constraints

Inborn errors of metabolism

Lesch–Nyhan syndrome

Genetic

Neuroacanthocytosis

Drug-induced

Psychostimulants, tardive dyskinesia

Infection:

Encephalitis

Tumor

Bobble-head doll syndrome

Trauma

Psychiatric

Obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, catatonia, functional

Source: Adapted from Singer HS, Mink JW, Gilbert DL, Jankovic J. Motor stereotypies. In: Movement Disorders in Childhood.10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Butterworth-Heinemann (Elsevier); 2016:109–125.