CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Ind J Car Dis Wom 2017; 02(03): 029-034
DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1607056
Original Article
Women in Cardiology and Related Sciences

Right Ventricular Infarction in Inferior Wall Myocardial Infarction

Velam Vanajakshamma
Department of Cardiology, SVIMS, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
,
Kancherla Vyshnavi
Department of SPM, S.V. Medical College, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
,
Kasala Latheef
Department of Cardiology, SVIMS, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
,
Rayi Ramesh
Department of Medicine, SVIMS, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
,
Kodem DamodaraRao
Department of Cardiology, SVIMS, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
01 December 2017 (online)

Abstract

Background Right ventricular infarction (RVI) is common in patients with inferior wall myocardial infarction (IWMI). Right ventricular involvement increases mortality and morbidity in IWMI patients. Clinical presentation of RVI differs, and accordingly treatment and management of patients also differs.

Aim To find out the frequency of RVI among patients with acute IWMI and to determine the utility of clinical examination, electrocardiography (ECG), and echocardiography (ECHO) in the diagnosis of RVI and its severity. Also o study the frequency and complications with reference to sex.

Material and Methods One hundred patients with acute IWMI were recruited. Clinical examination, ECG with right precordial leads, and 2D ECHO (right ventricular end-systolic volume [RVESV] and right ventricular end-diastolic volume [RVEDV], right ventricular stroke volume [RVSV], RVESV index [RVESVI], RVEDV index [RVEDVI], RVSV index [RVSVI], and right ventricular ejection fraction [RVEF]) were done to diagnose RVI and its severity. RVI patients were divided into two groups basing on RVEF as severe RVI (EF < 35%) and mild RVI (EF > 35%).

Results Forty-three (43%) patients had RVI. Thirty-one (72%) patients had mild RVI (EF > 35%) and 12 (28%) had severe RVI (EF < 35%). Clinical examination had less sensitivity (35%) and high specificity (93%) in the diagnosis of RVI whereas it was highly sensitive (100%) and specific (90%) in detecting severe RVI. Total ST elevation of ≥ 3 mm was highly sensitive (92%), and ≥ 5 mm was highly specific (94%) in detecting severe RVI. RVEF (p < 0.01), RVESVI (p < 0.01), RVEDVI (p < 0.01), RVSVI (p < 0.05), and total ST elevation (p < 0.01) were equally effective in detecting severe RVI. Case fatality rate in RVI was 7%. Proportional mortality rate in females was 67%, with higher mortality in females compared with males (p ≤ 0.05).

Conclusion Right-sided leads should be taken in all cases of acute IWMI. Careful clinical examination, total ST elevation in V1, V2, V3R, V4R, ECHO RVESV, RVEDV, RVSV, RVEF, RVESVI, RVEDVI, and RVSVI are useful in detecting severe RVI. Complications were significantly associated with the severity of RVI. Mortality is high in females compared with males.