CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Ind J Car Dis Wom 2017; 02(03): 039-043
DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1607040
Original Article
Women in Cardiology and Related Sciences

Coronary Artery Disease in Young Females: Current Scenario

Monica Kher
Department of Cardiology, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi, India
,
Bysani C. Sathyanarayan
Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Indo Gulf Hospital, Noida and Yashoda Hospital, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
01 December 2017 (online)

Abstract

Background Despite coronary artery disease (CAD) being the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in females, women still have been underrepresented in clinical trials. We have abundant data for young males with obstructive CAD, but there is scarcity of data for young females.

Objectives To observe the presentation, disease pattern, risk factors, ventricular function, and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) efficiency in young females in comparison with young males with obstructive CAD who required PCI.

Material and Methods We conducted a hospital-based retrospective study and analyzed the data of young patients (< 45 years of age) who had undergone PCI over the past 2 years. We observed the demographic profile, clinical findings, and investigative and treatment modalities in these patients.

Results Total 200 young patients underwent PCI for obstructive CAD over a span of 2 years. Among these patients, 42 patients were females. In comparison to males, hypertension (43.7% vs. 69.1%, p = 0.008) was more among females, which was statistically significant. Smoking was predominant in young males than young females. Also, males presented as acute ST-elevation MI, whereas females presented with unstable angina or non–ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI). Multivessel involvement, LV dysfunction, success of PCI, and complication rates were similar in both the groups. Anemia was more predominant in females (< 11 g/dL) than in males (< 13 g/dL). Also, complexity of lesion on angiography (B2 or C type of lesions) was greater in females than males, which was statistically significant (p = 0.02).

Conclusion Diabetes, hypertension, and other metabolic factors play a very important role in the onset of CAD in young women. NSTEMI and complex lesions showed greater predominance in females than in males in our study. However, the success and complication rate of PCI remained the same.