CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 · J Reconstr Microsurg Open 2017; 02(02): e126-e131
DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1606360
Original Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Effectiveness of “Indocyanine Green Dye Clamp Test” in Selecting Perforators for Muscle-Sparing-2 Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flaps in Breast Reconstruction

Seiko Okumura1, 2, Meisei Takeishi3, Ryota Nakamura2, Satoshi Kakutani1, Ikuo Hyodo1, Yuzuru Kamei2
  • 1Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
  • 2Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
  • 3Breast Reconstruction Institute, Mishima, Japan
Further Information

Publication History

17 February 2017

31 July 2017

Publication Date:
07 September 2017 (online)


Introduction In breast reconstruction for cases in which tissue from zones 1 to 4 is required or a lower midline scar exists, it is possible to predict the need for vascular anastomosis with a vascular pedicle on the contralateral side if the dominant territory of each perforator can be identified in advance. In addition, it is possible to determine whether a single- or multiple-perforator-based flap is needed. We, therefore, developed the “indocyanine green dye (ICG) clamp test” to select perforators for breast reconstruction.

Methods The blood flow of a perforator was blocked using a microvascular clamp when determining its inclusion in a flap. The clamps were released after the enlargement of the ICG fluorescence imaging range. The enlarged imaging range was then observed to determine whether an additional pedicle was required.

Subjects One hundred thirty-two breast reconstruction procedures had been performed using the free muscle-sparing-2 transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (MS2 TRAM) flap method from May 2012 to December 2015. The population of the present study included 29 of these cases in which the selection of perforators was deemed necessary.

Results We investigated the cases in which anastomosis of the contralateral vascular pedicle was unnecessary. It was possible to preserve the medial muscle in 79.3% of the cases using our procedure.

Conclusion Our newly developed ICG clamp test was useful in selecting perforators for MS2 TRAM flaps and facilitated the performance of minimally invasive surgery.