Analysis of the Changing Patterns of Midface Fractures Using 3D Computed Tomography: An Observational Study
14 March 2017
27 May 2017
25 August 2017 (eFirst)
This article aims to analyze the changing Le Fort fracture patterns using computed tomography (CT) scans with three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. A prospective observational study was conducted on 60 patients with midface trauma, who had reported to MS Ramaiah Group of Hospitals, Bangalore, between January 2015 and October 2016. CT scans using 1.6 mm axial, sagittal, coronal sections were taken and their 3D reconstruction was made. The images were studied and compared with the standard Le Fort lines. The deviations from the classical Le Fort lines were analyzed and recorded. A note was also made of any additional fixation that was required for these deviations. Descriptive analysis was done and the results expressed in numbers and percentages. Study revealed that the most common cause for the midface fractures was found to be road traffic accidents (81.7%) with a male preponderance (88.3%) and peak incidence in 21 to 30 years of age (40%). Among the 60 patients, 18 (30%) patients had fracture patterns similar to the ideal Le Fort lines, 4 (6.6%) had a combination of Le Fort patterns, and 38 (66.3%) patients had deviations seen from the ideal Le Fort lines. Four types of deviations were recorded, namely, D1(60%), D2(5.4%), D3(10.9%), and D4(23.6%). It was observed that D1 and D3 required additional fixation. Majority of the cases presented as a deviation from ideal Le Fort fractures. CT was a valuable tool in the assessment of these fracture patterns. Deviations, if any, could be better analyzed using the 3D reconstruction images. Proper diagnosis and detection of these deviations make the planning for fixation easier. Repetition of these deviations could propose a newer or modified classification system for Le Fort fractures.
The authors received no funding from any organization.