Cranial Maxillofac Trauma Reconstruction
DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1604426
Original Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Psychological Consequences of Maxillofacial Trauma in the Indian Population: A Preliminary Study

Balasubramanian Krishnan1, Ravi Philip Rajkumar2
  • 1Department of Dentistry, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry, Pondicherry, India
  • 2Department of Psychiatry, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry, Pondicherry, India
Further Information

Publication History

18 October 2016

02 April 2017

Publication Date:
19 July 2017 (eFirst)

Abstract

The aim of this article is to identify the prevalence of posttraumatic psychological symptoms following maxillofacial trauma among an Indian population sample and assess changes in these symptoms over a period of time. Forty-eight adult patients were assessed within 2 weeks of injury with two follow-up visits (4–6 weeks and 12–14 weeks). Patients were administered three self-reporting questionnaires in local language (GHQ-12; HADS; TSQ) on all occasions. Relevant sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained. Forty patients were included in the final analysis. Emotional distress was present in nine participants and five participants satisfied the TSQ criteria for a diagnosis of stress disorder. Anxiety and depression were observed in 10 and 4 patients, respectively. Characteristics associated with abnormal high scores included substance abuse, low education and income levels, facial scars, and complications needing additional intervention. These findings reveal the abnormal psychological response to maxillofacial trauma in immediate and follow-up periods. The use of such screening tools can be considered by the maxillofacial surgeon for early identification of psychological symptoms and referral to the psychiatrist.