Cardiac Three-Dimensional Printing Using Noninvasive Modalities: Will It Revolutionize Cardiac Care?
29 September 2017 (online)
Three-dimensional (3D) printing has emerged as a tool for clinicians to understand the underlying mechanisms and pathophysiology of these disorders in a simulated setting. Three-dimensional printing consists of manipulating a two-dimensional (2D) image obtained via noninvasive modalities, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or 3D echocardiography, to a 3D dataset and then finally into a physical model. Three-dimensional printing allows for creation of specific models in a variety of diseases such as cardiac shunts that can be visualized by surgeons prior to device placement in a matter of hours. Further, cardiac tumors, which typically invade the myocardium, have been replicated to allow surgeons the ability to plan procedures prior to any incision. This creates the potential for propagation of error within the health field. Three-dimensional printing has emerged as a tool for clinicians to understand the underlying mechanisms and pathophysiology of these disorders in a simulated setting though standardization of the technique is yet awaited.
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