Cranial Maxillofac Trauma Reconstruction 2017; 10(04): 263-270
DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1604167
Original Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Pedicle Flaps Contribute to Endoscopic Skull-Base Surgery and Facial Soft-Tissue Repair: The Diuturnity of Johannes Fredericus Samuel Esser (1877–1946)

Richard A. Pollock
1  Lancaster Regional Medical Center, Lancaster, Pennsylvania
2  Heart of Lancaster Regional Medical Center, Lititz, Pennsylvania
M. Douglas Gossman
3  University Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

07 May 2017

29 May 2017

Publication Date:
07 August 2017 (eFirst)


Pedicle flaps based on the external maxillary (facial) artery were introduced during the World War I, precisely a century ago. Today they remain effective tools in facial soft-tissue repair. Recently, pedicle flaps based on the internal maxillary (sphenopalatine) artery have been chosen to reliably close dural defects after endoscopic skull-base surgery. Pedicle flaps, “biologic” to the extent they are based on a defined arterial blood supply, are the lasting contributions—the diuturnity—of Johannes (“Jan”) Fredericus Samuel Esser (1877–1946) of Leiden, Holland, and Chicago (IL).


Permissions have been obtained from Alamy, Annals of Surgery (Wolters Kluwer), and the Esser Foundation Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction (April 23, 2017).