J Pediatr Infect Dis 2017; 12(04): 202-208
DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1603942
Review Article
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Fetomaternal and Pediatric Toxoplasmosis

Helieh S. Oz
Department of Physiology and Internal Medicine, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, Kentucky, United States
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

12 January 2017

12 April 2017

Publication Date:
19 June 2017 (eFirst)

Abstract

Toxoplasmosis is one of the most important causes of foodborne illnesses and inflammatory complications, as well as congenital disorders. Promiscuous Toxoplasma is transmitted by contaminated food and animal produce, water, vegetations, fruits, and sexually through semen. Toxoplasma infects nucleated cells with a unique tropism for muscles and central nervous system and a mind bugging malicious effect. Pregnant women with acute or reactivated toxoplasmosis can transmit Toxoplasma via transplacental transmission to the fetus. The severity of congenital toxoplasmosis depends on the gestation period, as infection in early pregnancy causes more severe consequences. Congenital toxoplasmosis complications include miscarriage, encephalitis, neurological retardation, mental illnesses, auditory, and visual inflammatory disorders, cardiovascular abnormalities, and pains. Current therapies are inefficient for congenital and chronic toxoplasmosis or have severe side effects with life-threatening complications. There is an urgent need for effective and safe therapeutic modalities to treat complications of toxoplasmosis and effective vaccines to eliminate the infectious agent. This investigation will discuss the pathogenesis of fetomaternal, congenital, and pediatric toxoplasmosis, the currently available therapies in practice, and explore those therapeutic modalities in experimental stages for promising future trials.