Arthroscopic Scaphoid 3D Test for Scapholunate Instability
07 December 2016
08 March 2016
28 April 2017 (eFirst)
Background Patients with scapholunate instability usually have pain in the dorsal wrist. This pain may occur due to the impingement between the scaphoid and the dorsal rim of the radius when the scaphoid is detached from the lunate. This pain appears as the scaphoid is displaced over the dorsal rim of the radius. The arthroscopic scaphoid 3D (dorsal, dynamic, displacement) test is described here to check this pathologic dorsal displacement of the scaphoid.
Surgical Technique The test should be performed both in the radiocarpal and midcarpal joints. Traction is released and the arthroscope is set under the lunate when tested in the radiocarpal joint and on the lunate when tested in the midcarpal joint. The scaphoid is manually pushed dorsally at the scaphoid tubercle. If there was no scapholunate instability, all the proximal row bones are minimally displaced: a negative test. If there was scapholunate instability, the scaphoid is displaced dorsally while the lunate remains static: evaluated as positive.
Clinical Relevance This test can add information to the arthroscopic classifications of the scapholunate instability, which explore both the proximal to distal displacement of the scaphoid (the step-off) and the ulnar to radial displacement (the gap), as this test explores the volar to dorsal displacement.
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