CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2017; 21(04): 399-407
DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1597825
Systematic Review
Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Head and Neck Lymphomas in HIV Patients: a Clinical Perspective

Natsuki Oishi
1  ENT Department, Consorci Hospital General Universitari de Valencia, Valencia, Spain
2  ENT Department, Universitat de Valencia Facultat de Medicina i Odontologia, Valencia, Comunitat Valenciana, Spain
,
José Vicente Bagán
3  Department of Stomatology, Consorci Hospital General Universitari de Valencia, Valencia, Comunitat Valenciana, Spain
,
Karla Javier
4  Department of Haematology, Consorci Hospital General Universitari de Valencia, Valencia, Comunitat Valenciana, Spain
,
Enrique Zapater
1  ENT Department, Consorci Hospital General Universitari de Valencia, Valencia, Spain
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

16 July 2016

31 October 2016

Publication Date:
01 February 2017 (eFirst)

Abstract

Introduction Because of the many HIV-related malignancies, the diagnosis and treatment of lymphoma in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus are challenging.

Objective Here, we review current knowledge of the pathogenesis, epidemiology, symptomatology, diagnosis, and treatment of head and neck lymphomas in HIV patients from a clinical perspective.

Data Synthesis Although Hodgkin's lymphoma is not an AIDS-defining neoplasm, its prevalence is ten times higher in HIV patients than in the general population. NHL is the second most common malignancy in HIV patients, after Kaposi's sarcoma. In this group of patients, NHL is characterized by rapid progression, frequent extranodal involvement, and a poor outcome. HIV-related salivary gland disease is a benign condition that shares some features with lymphomas and is considered in their differential diagnosis.

Conclusion The otolaryngologist may be the first clinician to diagnose head and neck lymphomas. The increasing survival of HIV patients implies clinical and epidemiological changes in the behavior of this disease. Early diagnosis is important to improve the prognosis and avoid the propagation of HIV infection.