Cranial Maxillofac Trauma Reconstruction 2017; 10(01): 48-55
DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1597581
Original Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Patterns of Maxillofacial Fractures in Uttar Pradesh, India

Padmanidhi Agarwal1, Divya Mehrotra1, Rajul Agarwal1, Sumit Kumar1, Rahul Pandey1
  • 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
Further Information

Publication History

15 August 2016

17 September 2016

Publication Date:
16 December 2016 (eFirst)


This study aimed to obtain dependable epidemiologic data of the variation in cause and characteristics of maxillofacial fractures by identifying, describing, and quantifying trauma. This retrospective study was conducted in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India, over 1 year, based on a systematic computer-assisted database search from March 2015 to March 2016 for maxillofacial fractures. The demographics, etiology, geographic distribution, date of injury, site and number of fractures, and type of intervention were recorded for each. The study population consisted of 1,000 patients with 1,543 fractures. The male:female ratio was 8:1. A peak incidence of fractures was seen in the third decade (mean age: 30.3) with maximum patients younger than 40 years (80.8%). The incidence of fractures was highest in spring (42.9%). Road traffic accidents were the most common cause of trauma (64.4%) and mainly involved two wheelers (60.2%). Single-site fractures were most common. Mostly zygomatic (45.1%) and mandibular fractures (44.4%) were encountered, accounting for approximately 90% of all fractures. The main site of mandibular fractures was the body (34.4%); 46.2% of fractures underwent open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) while 53.8% were treated by closed methods. The study provides important data to contrive future plans for injury prevention. The trend of most traffic-related injuries continues with the increasing traffic on roads. Zygomatic complex and mandibular fractures remain the most frequent. The major populations at risk are young men and those driving two wheelers. The use of helmets could achieve a large reduction in maxillofacial fractures. Awareness for preventive measures and safety guidelines should be propagated and legislation on traffic rules strictly reinforced.