Journal of Pediatric Epilepsy 2016; 05(04): 168-175
DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1584914
Review Article
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Kozhevnikov-Rasmussen Syndrome: A Historical Perspective Spanning Two Centuries

Tatyana Gitlevich
1   Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Epilepsy Management Center, Bronx, New York, United States
,
Fred A. Lado
1   Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Epilepsy Management Center, Bronx, New York, United States
,
Solomon L. Moshé
1   Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Epilepsy Management Center, Bronx, New York, United States
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

21 December 2015

09 March 2016

Publication Date:
07 September 2016 (online)

Abstract

The Kozhevnikov-Rasmussen syndrome consists of a distinctive constellation of intractable, mainly focal, motor seizures, associated with relentlessly progressive hemiparesis and neuropsychological deterioration with cognitive and linguistic deficits. It dates back to the end of the 19th century and spans two continents. The main seizure type, epilepsia partialis continua, was first described by the Russian neurologist Kozhevnikov in 1894 and shortly after the eponym Kozhevnikov epilepsy was used both in Russian and in Western literature. The description of “focal seizures due to chronic localized encephalitis in children” by Rasmussen and his colleagues took place in 1958 and it was introduced as Rasmussen encephalitis. What began as a clinical observation became a complex syndrome affecting many age groups with a possible neuroimmunological etiology. Here we describe the historical perspectives underlying the establishment of the syndrome.