Cranial Maxillofac Trauma Reconstruction 2017; 10(01): 16-21
DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1584893
Original Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

An Overview of Maxillofacial Trauma in Oral and Maxillofacial Tertiary Trauma Centre, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah

Chee Wei Lee1, Qi Chao Foo1, Ling Vuan Wong1, Yiu Yan Leung2
  • 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
  • 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Further Information

Publication History

14 March 2016

30 April 2016

Publication Date:
29 September 2016 (eFirst)


The aims of this study were to provide an overview of maxillofacial trauma and its relationship to patient's demographic data and alcohol consumption within the state of Sabah. It was a retrospective study of maxillofacial trauma cases treated by Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, from January 1, 2009, until December 31, 2013. A total of 630 maxillofacial trauma cases were included. Details of the trauma were collected from patients' record, including patients' cause of injuries, injuries suffered, treatment indications, and treatment received. Patients' demographic data (age, gender), alcohol consumption in relation to causes, and type of maxillofacial injury were analyzed. There were 538 male (85.4%) and 92 female (14.6%) patients (ratio: 5.8:1), with mean age of 31.0 years. Most common causes of maxillofacial injury were motor vehicle accident (MVA; 66.3%), followed by fall (12.4%) and assault (11.6%). Motorcyclists made up more than half of the total cases (53.1%). Cases referred were primarily due to soft-tissue injury (458 cases). Other cases were dentoalveolar and maxillofacial bone fractures. Treatment provided for the fractures included open reduction and internal fixation (22.9%), closed reduction (28.7%), and conservative management (48.4%). Toilet and suturing were done for all patients with soft-tissue injury. Maxillofacial trauma is a major problem in Sabah. It affects mostly males in the age group of 21 to 30 years. Most of the MVA patients were motorcyclists. Mandibular fracture with parasymphysis involvement recorded the highest number. Most of the patients preferred conservative management, probably due to financial and logistic issue.