Growth and Development in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants After the Introduction of Exclusive Human Milk Feedings
10. März 2016
05. Mai 2016
20. Juni 2016 (online)
Objective To estimate associations of exclusive human milk (EHM) feedings with growth and neurodevelopment through 18 months corrected age (CA) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants.
Study Design ELBW infants admitted from July 2011 to June 2013 who survived were reviewed. Infants managed from July 2011 to June 2012 were fed with bovine milk-based fortifiers and formula (BOV). Beginning in July 2012, initial feedings used a human milk-based fortifier to provide EHM feedings. Infants were grouped on the basis of feeding regimen. Primary outcomes were the Bayley-III cognitive scores at 6, 12, and 18 months and growth.
Results Infants (n = 85; 46% received EHM) were born at 26 ± 1.9 weeks (p = 0.92 between groups) weighing 776 ± 139 g (p = 0.67 between groups). Cognitive domain scores were similar at 6 months (BOV: 96 ± 7; EHM: 95 ± 14; p = 0.70), 12 months (BOV: 97 ± 10; EHM: 98 ± 9; p = 0.86), and 18 months (BOV: 97 ± 16; EHM: 98 ± 14; p = 0.71) CA. Growth velocity prior to discharge (BOV: 12.1 ± 5.2 g/kg/day; EHM: 13.1 ± 4.0 g/kg/day; p = 0.33) and subsequent growth was similar between groups.
Conclusion EHM feedings appear to support similar growth and neurodevelopment in ELBW infants as compared with feedings containing primarily bovine milk-based products.
- 1 Griffin IJ, Tancredi DJ, Bertino E, Lee HC, Profit J. Postnatal growth failure in very low birthweight infants born between 2005 and 2012. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2016; 101: 50-55
- 2 Sisk PM, Lovelady CA, Dillard RG, Gruber KJ, O'Shea TM. Early human milk feeding is associated with a lower risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants. J Perinatol 2007; 27 (7) 428-433
- 3 Corpeleijn WE, Kouwenhoven SM, Paap MC , et al. Intake of own mother's milk during the first days of life is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality in very low birth weight infants during the first 60 days of life. Neonatology 2012; 102 (4) 276-281
- 4 Meinzen-Derr J, Poindexter B, Wrage L, Morrow AL, Stoll B, Donovan EF. Role of human milk in extremely low birth weight infants' risk of necrotizing enterocolitis or death. J Perinatol 2009; 29 (1) 57-62
- 5 Zhou J, Shukla VV, John D, Chen C. Human milk feeding as a protective factor for retinopathy of prematurity: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics 2015; 136 (6) e1576-e1586
- 6 Spiegler J, Preuß M, Gebauer C, Bendiks M, Herting E, Göpel W ; German Neonatal Network (GNN); German Neonatal Network GNN. Does breastmilk influence the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia?. J Pediatr 2016; 169: 76-80.e4
- 7 Konnikova Y, Zaman MM, Makda M, D'Onofrio D, Freedman SD, Martin CR. Late enteral feedings are associated with intestinal inflammation and adverse neonatal outcomes. PLoS ONE 2015; 10 (7) e0132924 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132924.
- 8 Kuschel CA, Harding JE. Multicomponent fortified human milk for promoting growth in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; (1) CD000343 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000343.pub2.
- 9 Sullivan S, Schanler RJ, Kim JH , et al. An exclusively human milk-based diet is associated with a lower rate of necrotizing enterocolitis than a diet of human milk and bovine milk-based products. J Pediatr 2010; 156 (4) 562-567.e1
- 10 Cristofalo EA, Schanler RJ, Blanco CL , et al. Randomized trial of exclusive human milk versus preterm formula diets in extremely premature infants. J Pediatr 2013; 163 (6) 1592-1595.e1
- 11 Abrams SA, Schanler RJ, Lee ML, Rechtman DJ. Greater mortality and morbidity in extremely preterm infants fed a diet containing cow milk protein products. Breastfeed Med 2014; 9 (6) 281-285
- 12 Agostoni C, Buonocore G, Carnielli VP , et al; ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition. Enteral nutrient supply for preterm infants: commentary from the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2010; 50 (1) 85-91
- 13 Cormack BE, Bloomfield FH. Increased protein intake decreases postnatal growth faltering in ELBW babies. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2013; 98 (5) F399-F404
- 14 Koo W, Tank S, Martin S, Shi R. Human milk and neurodevelopment in children with very low birth weight: a systematic review. Nutr J 2014; 13: 94 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-94.
- 15 American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Newborn. Levels of neonatal care. Pediatrics 2012; 130 (3) 587-597
- 16 Richardson DK, Corcoran JD, Escobar GJ, Lee SK. SNAP-II and SNAPPE-II: simplified newborn illness severity and mortality risk scores. J Pediatr 2001; 138 (1) 92-100
- 17 Zip Code Community Facts Quickfacts. Illinois. 2010. Available at http://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/community_facts.xhtml
- 18 Patel AL, Engstrom JL, Meier PP, Jegier BJ, Kimura RE. Calculating postnatal growth velocity in very low birth weight (VLBW) premature infants. J Perinatol 2009; 29 (9) 618-622
- 19 Fenton TR, Kim JH. A systematic review and meta-analysis to revise the Fenton growth chart for preterm infants. BMC Pediatr 2013; 13: 59 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-13-59.
- 20 de Onis M, Garza C, Victora CG, Onyango AW, Frongillo EA, Martines J. The WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study: planning, study design, and methodology. Food Nutr Bull 2004; 25 (1, Suppl): S15-S26
- 21 Stephens BE, Walden RV, Gargus RA , et al. First-week protein and energy intakes are associated with 18-month developmental outcomes in extremely low birth weight infants. Pediatrics 2009; 123 (5) 1337-1343
- 22 Makrides M, Anderson A, Gibson RA, Collins CT. Improving the neurodevelopmental outcomes of low-birthweight infants. Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser 2013; 74: 211-221
- 23 Colombo J, Carlson SE. Is the measure the message: the BSID and nutritional interventions. Pediatrics 2012; 129 (6) 1166-1167
- 24 Luttikhuizen dos Santos ES, de Kieviet JF, Königs M, van Elburg RM, Oosterlaan J. Predictive value of the Bayley scales of infant development on development of very preterm/very low birth weight children: a meta-analysis. Early Hum Dev 2013; 89 (7) 487-496
- 25 Spencer-Smith MM, Spittle AJ, Lee KJ, Doyle LW, Anderson PJ. Bayley-III Cognitive and Language Scales in Preterm Children. Pediatrics 2015; 135 (5) e1258-e1265
- 26 Horbar JD, Ehrenkranz RA, Badger GJ , et al. Weight growth velocity and postnatal growth failure in infants 501 to 1500 grams: 2000-2013. Pediatrics 2015; 136 (1) e84-e92
- 27 Wood NS, Costeloe K, Gibson AT, Hennessy EM, Marlow N, Wilkinson AR ; EPICure Study Group. The EPICure study: growth and associated problems in children born at 25 weeks of gestational age or less. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2003; 88 (6) F492-F500
- 28 Neubauer V, Griesmaier E, Pehböck-Walser N, Pupp-Peglow U, Kiechl-Kohlendorfer U. Poor postnatal head growth in very preterm infants is associated with impaired neurodevelopment outcome. Acta Paediatr 2013; 102 (9) 883-888
- 29 Scharf RJ, Stroustrup A, Conaway MR, DeBoer MD. Growth and development in children born very low birthweight. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2015; DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2015-309427.
- 30 Khorana M, Jiamsajjamongkhon C. Pilot study on growth parameters and nutritional biochemical markers in very low birth weight preterm infants fed human milk fortified with either human milk fortifier or post discharge formula. J Med Assoc Thai 2014; 97 (6) (Suppl. 06) S164-S175
- 31 Abrams SA ; Committee on Nutrition. Calcium and vitamin d requirements of enterally fed preterm infants. Pediatrics 2013; 131 (5) e1676-e1683
- 32 Mitchell SM, Rogers SP, Hicks PD, Hawthorne KM, Parker BR, Abrams SA. High frequencies of elevated alkaline phosphatase activity and rickets exist in extremely low birth weight infants despite current nutritional support. BMC Pediatr 2009; 9: 47 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-9-47.
- 33 Kelleher J, Salas AA, Bhat R , et al; GDB Subcommittee, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Prophylactic indomethacin and intestinal perforation in extremely low birth weight infants. Pediatrics 2014; 134 (5) e1369-e1377
- 34 Patel AL, Trivedi S, Bhandari NP , et al. Reducing necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants using quality-improvement methods. J Perinatol 2014; 34 (11) 850-857
- 35 Wang Y, Hoenig JD, Malin KJ , et al. 16S rRNA gene-based analysis of fecal microbiota from preterm infants with and without necrotizing enterocolitis. ISME J 2009; 3 (8) 944-954
- 36 Montjaux-Régis N, Cristini C, Arnaud C, Glorieux I, Vanpee M, Casper C. Improved growth of preterm infants receiving mother's own raw milk compared with pasteurized donor milk. Acta Paediatr 2011; 100 (12) 1548-1554
- 37 Colaizy TT, Carlson S, Saftlas AF, Morriss Jr FH. Growth in VLBW infants fed predominantly fortified maternal and donor human milk diets: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Pediatr 2012; 12: 124 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-124.