Temporal Resolution and Active Auditory Discrimination Skill in Vocal Musicians
23. Juli 2015
04. Oktober 2015
17.Dezember 2015 (eFirst)
Introduction Enhanced auditory perception in musicians is likely to result from auditory perceptual learning during several years of training and practice. Many studies have focused on biological processing of auditory stimuli among musicians. However, there is a lack of literature on temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skills in vocal musicians.
Objective The aim of the present study is to assess temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skill in vocal musicians.
Method The study participants included 15 vocal musicians with a minimum professional experience of 5 years of music exposure, within the age range of 20 to 30 years old, as the experimental group, while 15 age-matched non-musicians served as the control group. We used duration discrimination using pure-tones, pulse-train duration discrimination, and gap detection threshold tasks to assess temporal processing skills in both groups. Similarly, we assessed active auditory discrimination skill in both groups using Differential Limen of Frequency (DLF). All tasks were done using MATLab software installed in a personal computer at 40dBSL with maximum likelihood procedure. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS (version 17.0).
Result Descriptive statistics showed better threshold for vocal musicians compared with non-musicians for all tasks. Further, independent t-test showed that vocal musicians performed significantly better compared with non-musicians on duration discrimination using pure tone, pulse train duration discrimination, gap detection threshold, and differential limen of frequency.
Conclusion The present study showed enhanced temporal resolution ability and better (lower) active discrimination threshold in vocal musicians in comparison to non-musicians.
- 1 Musiek FE, Shinn JB, Jirsa R, Bamiou DE, Baran JA, Zaida E. GIN (Gaps-In-Noise) test performance in subjects with confirmed central auditory nervous system involvement. Ear Hear 2005; 26 (6) 608-618
- 2 Bellis TJ. Assessment and management of central auditory processing disorders in the educational setting: from science to practice (2nd ed.). New York: Delmar Learning; 2003
- 3 Downie AL, Jakobson LS, Frisk V, Ushycky I. Auditory temporal processing deficits in children with periventricular brain injury. Brain Lang 2002; 80 (2) 208-225
- 4 Phillips DP. Central auditory system and central auditory processing disorders: some conceptual issues. Semin Hear 2002; 23 (2) 251-261
- 5 Parbery-Clark A, Skoe E, Lam C, Kraus N. Musician enhancement for speech-in-noise. Ear Hear 2009; 30 (6) 653-661
- 6 Kleim JA, Jones TA. Principles of experience-dependent neural plasticity: implications for rehabilitation after brain damage. J Speech Lang Hear Res 2008; 51 (1) S225-S239
- 7 Green CS, Bavelier D. Exercising your brain: a review of human brain plasticity and training-induced learning. Psychol Aging 2008; 23 (4) 692-701
- 8 Abdul-Kareem IA, Stancak A, Parkes LM, Sluming V. Increased gray matter volume of left pars opercularis in male orchestral musicians correlate positively with years of musical performance. J Magn Reson Imaging 2011; 33 (1) 24-32
- 9 Amir O, Amir N, Kishon-Rabin L. The effect of superior auditory skills on vocal accuracy. J Acoust Soc Am 2003; 113 (2) 1102-1108
- 10 Jones JA, Munhall KG. Perceptual calibration of F0 production: evidence from feedback perturbation. J Acoust Soc Am 2000; 108 (3 Pt 1): 1246-1251
- 11 Mürbe D, Pabst F, Hofmann G, Sundberg J. Effects of a professional solo singer education on auditory and kinesthetic feedback—a longitudinal study of singers' pitch control. J Voice 2004; 18 (2) 236-241
- 12 Wong PC, Skoe E, Russo NM, Dees T, Kraus N. Musical experience shapes human brainstem encoding of linguistic pitch patterns. Nat Neurosci 2007; 10 (4) 420-422
- 13 Lee KM, Skoe E, Kraus N, Ashley R. Selective subcortical enhancement of musical intervals in musicians. J Neurosci 2009; 29 (18) 5832-5840
- 14 Shahin A, Roberts LE, Pantev C, Trainor LJ, Ross B. Modulation of P2 auditory-evoked responses by the spectral complexity of musical sounds. Neuroreport 2005; 16 (16) 1781-1785
- 15 Carhart R, Jerger J. Preferred method for clinical determination of pure-tone thresholds. J Speech Hear Disord 1959; 24 (4) 330-335
- 16 Fujioka T, Ross B, Kakigi R, Pantev C, Trainor LJ. One year of musical training affects development of auditory cortical-evoked fields in young children. Brain 2006; 129 (Pt 10) 2593-2608
- 17 Moreno S, Marques C, Santos A, Santos M, Castro SL, Besson M. Musical training influences linguistic abilities in 8-year-old children: more evidence for brain plasticity. Cereb Cortex 2009; 19 (3) 712-723
- 18 Güçlü B, Sevinc E, Canbeyli R. Duration discrimination by musicians and nonmusicians. Psychol Rep 2011; 108 (3) 675-687
- 19 Sangamanatha AV, Fernandes J, Bhat J, Srivastava M, Prakrithi SU. Temporal resolution in individuals with and without musical training. J Ind Sp Hear Assoc 2012; 26 (3) 27-35
- 20 Mishra SK, Panda MR. Experience-dependent learning of auditory temporal resolution: evidence from Carnatic-trained musicians. Neuroreport 2014; 25 (2) 134-137
- 21 Kuman PV, Rana B, Krishna R. Temporal processing in musicians and non-musicians. J Hear Sci 2014; 4 (3) 35-42
- 22 Mishra SK, Panda MR, Herbert C. Enhanced auditory temporal gap detection in listeners with musical training. J Acoust Soc Am 2014; 136 (2) EL173-EL178
- 23 Monteiro RAM, Nascimento FM, Soares CD, Ferreira MIDC. Temporal Resolution Abilities in Musicians and No Musicians Violinists. Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2010; 14 (3) 302-308
- 24 Kishon-Rabin L, Amir O, Vexler Y, Zaltz Y. Pitch discrimination: are professional musicians better than non-musicians?. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2001; 12 (2, Suppl) 125-143
- 25 Parbery-Clark A, Skoe E, Kraus N. Musical experience limits the degradative effects of background noise on the neural processing of sound. J Neurosci 2009; 29 (45) 14100-14107
- 26 Bidelman GM, Krishnan A. Effects of reverberation on brainstem representation of speech in musicians and non-musicians. Brain Res 2010; 1355: 112-125
- 27 Bidelman GM, Hutka S, Moreno S. Tone language speakers and musicians share enhanced perceptual and cognitive abilities for musical pitch: evidence for bidirectionality between the domains of language and music. PLoS ONE 2013; 8 (4) e60676
- 28 Overy K. Dyslexia and music: From timing deficits to musical intervention. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2003; 999: 497-505
- 29 Walker KM, Hall SE, Klein RM, Phillips DP. Development of perceptual correlates of reading performance. Brain Res 2006; 1124 (1) 126-141
- 30 Tallal P, Gaab N. Dynamic auditory processing, musical experience and language development. Trends Neurosci 2006; 29 (7) 382-390