Potent anthelmintic activity of galloylated proanthocyanidins from shea meal (Vitellaria paradoxa)
Proanthocyanindins (PAs) from shea meal (SM), a by-product obtained after lipid extraction of the nuts, contained B-type linkages, had a high ratio of prodelphinidins (73%) and were galloylated (42%). The average polymer size was 8 flavan-3-ol subunits (≈2384 Daltons) and epigallocatechin gallate was the major subunit.
Purified PA fractions from SM were tested in vitro for anthelmintic properties against gastrointestinal nematodes from ruminants (H. contortus and T. colubriformis)  by the larval exsheathment inhibition assay and from pigs (A. suum) by the larval migration inhibition assay.
Results showed that PAs from SM have a potent anthelmintic activity against those parasites similar to white clover (Trifolium repens) flowers (WCF) [1, 2] (EC50 µg/mL; SM: 55.1, 16.5, 75.9; WCF: 37.4, 14.5, 110.1 for A. suum, H. contortus and T. colubriformis respectively).
WCF PAs are constituted almost exclusively of prodelphinidin (PD) compared to SM (98% vs. 73%) but do not contained galloylated PAs. Studies [1, 2] have shown that anthelmintic activity of PAs was mainly associated with their PD ratio but our current results suggest that galloylation can be a major factor to anthelmintic activity and SM as a potential nutraceutical anthelmintic feed for controlling parasitic nematodes.
 Quijada J, Frygana C, Ropiak H, Ramsay A, Mueller-Harvey I, Hoste H. Contrasted structural factors of tannin-rich fractions explained the anthelmintic activity against H. contortus or T. colubriformis. JAFC. in press.
 Williams A R, Fryganas C, Ramsay A, Mueller-Harvey I, Thamsborg SM. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against A. suum. PLoS ONE 2014; 9: 1 – 16