Journal of Pediatric Epilepsy 2015; 04(04): 184-206
DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1563728
Review Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Electrocorticography-Based Real-Time Functional Mapping for Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery

Milena Korostenskaja
1   Milena's Functional Brain Mapping and Brain-Computer Interface Lab, Florida Hospital for Children, Orlando, Florida, United States
2   MEG Lab, Florida Hospital, Orlando, Florida, United States
3   Comprehensive Pediatric Epilepsy Center, Florida Hospital for Children, Orlando, Florida, United States
,
Kyousuke Kamada
4   Department of Neurosurgery, Asahikawa Medical University, Hokkaido, Japan
,
Christoph Guger
5   g.tec Medical Engineering GmbH, Graz, Austria
,
Christine M. Salinas
3   Comprehensive Pediatric Epilepsy Center, Florida Hospital for Children, Orlando, Florida, United States
6   Division of Neuropsychology, Florida Hospital for Children, Orlando, Florida, United States
,
Michael Westerveld
3   Comprehensive Pediatric Epilepsy Center, Florida Hospital for Children, Orlando, Florida, United States
6   Division of Neuropsychology, Florida Hospital for Children, Orlando, Florida, United States
,
Eduardo M. Castillo
2   MEG Lab, Florida Hospital, Orlando, Florida, United States
3   Comprehensive Pediatric Epilepsy Center, Florida Hospital for Children, Orlando, Florida, United States
,
Elena Salillas
7   Basque Center on Cognition, Brain and Language, San Sebastian, Spain
,
Po-Ching Chen
1   Milena's Functional Brain Mapping and Brain-Computer Interface Lab, Florida Hospital for Children, Orlando, Florida, United States
3   Comprehensive Pediatric Epilepsy Center, Florida Hospital for Children, Orlando, Florida, United States
,
Elana Harris
8   Division of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
,
Ian Seddon
1   Milena's Functional Brain Mapping and Brain-Computer Interface Lab, Florida Hospital for Children, Orlando, Florida, United States
3   Comprehensive Pediatric Epilepsy Center, Florida Hospital for Children, Orlando, Florida, United States
,
Mohammed Elsayed
1   Milena's Functional Brain Mapping and Brain-Computer Interface Lab, Florida Hospital for Children, Orlando, Florida, United States
3   Comprehensive Pediatric Epilepsy Center, Florida Hospital for Children, Orlando, Florida, United States
,
Christoph Kapeller
5   g.tec Medical Engineering GmbH, Graz, Austria
,
Alex Schaal
1   Milena's Functional Brain Mapping and Brain-Computer Interface Lab, Florida Hospital for Children, Orlando, Florida, United States
3   Comprehensive Pediatric Epilepsy Center, Florida Hospital for Children, Orlando, Florida, United States
,
Joo-Hee Seo
3   Comprehensive Pediatric Epilepsy Center, Florida Hospital for Children, Orlando, Florida, United States
,
James Baumgartner
3   Comprehensive Pediatric Epilepsy Center, Florida Hospital for Children, Orlando, Florida, United States
,
Ki H. Lee
3   Comprehensive Pediatric Epilepsy Center, Florida Hospital for Children, Orlando, Florida, United States
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

12 February 2014

03 February 2015

Publication Date:
18 September 2015 (online)

Abstract

Precise localization of eloquent cortex in children may provide much needed surgical guidance and expand surgical epilepsy treatment options. It reduces the risk of postsurgical functional deficits and benefits children's quality of life, educational capacity, and long-term employment potential. The ultimate goal of functional mapping for pediatric epilepsy surgery is to decrease postsurgical functional morbidity. In this review article, we will discuss the electrocorticography (ECoG)-based real-time functional mapping (RTFM) technique for localizing motor-, somatosensory-, and language-specific regions. The examples demonstrating ECoG-based RTFM mapping techniques will be given from the data produced by the authors. We will demonstrate that the RTFM technique is a functional mapping tool based on direct measurement of neural activity that is time- and effort-effective, safe, well tolerated by children, and is expected to lead to reduced postsurgical functional morbidity in pediatric epilepsy patients. In conjunction with other utilized functional imaging modalities, RTFM may reduce cognitive morbidity and, as a consequence, benefit children's quality of life and educational capacity.