Int J Angiol 2015; 24(03): 179-184
DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1556056
Invited Paper
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Multimodality Imaging of Carotid Stenosis

Theodor Adla
1   Department of Radiology, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and Motol University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic
Radka Adlova
2   Complex Cardiovascular Centre for Adult Patients, Cardiology Clinic of the 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and Motol University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic
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15. Juli 2015 (online)


Four diagnostic modalities are used to image the following internal carotid artery: digital subtraction angiography (DSA), duplex ultrasound (DUS), computed tomography angiography (CTA), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). The aim of this article is to describe the potentials of these techniques and to discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Invasive DSA is still considered the gold standard and is an indivisible part of the carotid stenting procedure. DUS is an inexpensive but operator-dependent tool with limited visibility of the carotid artery course. Conversely, CTA and MRA allow assessment of the carotid artery from the aortic arch to intracranial parts. The disadvantages of CTA are radiation and iodine contrast medium administration. MRA is without radiation but contrast-enhanced MRA is more accurate than noncontrast MRA. The choice of methods depends on the clinical indications and the availability of methods in individual centers. However, the general approach to patient with suspected carotid artery stenosis is to first perform DUS and then other noninvasive methods such as CTA, MRA, or transcranial Doppler US.

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