Pseudotumor Cerebri Syndrome and Renal Diseases in the Pediatric Population
27 October 2014
06 January 2015
13 July 2015 (online)
Pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS) is defined as a syndrome of markedly elevated intracranial pressure, with no evidence of intracranial mass, inflammation or obstruction on brain imaging. Headache, visual disturbances (e.g., diplopia, visual loss), and papilledema are the most common presenting features. The mechanism(s) underlying PTCS is still unknown. Numerous medical illnesses and medications have been associated with the risk of PTCS, and a range of renal disorders (e.g., renal transplantation, nephrotic syndrome, inherited tubulopathies, acute or chronic kidney insufficiency) can predispose to developing this raised intracranial pressure syndrome. Fluid and electrolyte balance in renal epithelial cells are regulated by a complex interaction of metabolic and/or hormonal factors. In this context, we also discuss recent studies that suggest that renal epithelial cells share many of the same features as the choroid plexus epithelial cells, which are involved in the regulation of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics.