J Pediatr Neurol 2015; 13(01): 042-045
DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1555153
Review Article
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Pseudotumor Cerebri Syndrome and Renal Diseases in the Pediatric Population

Roberto Chimenz
Department of Pediatrics, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
,
Valeria Dipasquale
Department of Pediatrics, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
,
Dominique De Vivo
Department of Pediatrics, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
,
Federica Sancetta
Department of Pediatrics, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
,
Anna Claudia Romeo
Department of Pediatrics, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
,
Valeria Chirico
Department of Pediatrics, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
,
Antonio Lacquaniti
Department of Internal Medicine, Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Palermo, Italy
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

27 October 2014

06 January 2015

Publication Date:
13 July 2015 (online)

Abstract

Pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS) is defined as a syndrome of markedly elevated intracranial pressure, with no evidence of intracranial mass, inflammation or obstruction on brain imaging. Headache, visual disturbances (e.g., diplopia, visual loss), and papilledema are the most common presenting features. The mechanism(s) underlying PTCS is still unknown. Numerous medical illnesses and medications have been associated with the risk of PTCS, and a range of renal disorders (e.g., renal transplantation, nephrotic syndrome, inherited tubulopathies, acute or chronic kidney insufficiency) can predispose to developing this raised intracranial pressure syndrome. Fluid and electrolyte balance in renal epithelial cells are regulated by a complex interaction of metabolic and/or hormonal factors. In this context, we also discuss recent studies that suggest that renal epithelial cells share many of the same features as the choroid plexus epithelial cells, which are involved in the regulation of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics.