Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2015; 19(03): 212-230
DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1549316
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Normal Shoulder MRI and MR Arthrography: Anatomy and Technique

Eva Llopis
1   Department of Radiology, Hospital de la Ribera, Valencia, Spain
Pau Montesinos
1   Department of Radiology, Hospital de la Ribera, Valencia, Spain
M. Teresa Guedez
2   Centro Diagnostico Scanner, Malaga, Spain
Luis Aguilella
1   Department of Radiology, Hospital de la Ribera, Valencia, Spain
Luis Cerezal
3   DMC, Diagnostico Medico Cantabria, Santander, Spain
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
28 May 2015 (online)


The use of MR for the diagnosis of shoulder lesions is well established, as well as MR arthrography for the diagnosis for shoulder instability and microinstability. For an accurate evaluation is essential to know the normal anatomy and variants to avoid the misdiagnosis of a pitfall as pathological condition. In addition we will discuss which variants might be clinically relevant. We will review the classical frequent variants such as intraarticular structures, especially glenohumeral ligaments and labrum but also bone, cartilage and rotator cuff variants and pitfalls. Both static and dynamic structures play an important role providing stability at different positions and with different range of motion.

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