Planta Med 2015; 81(14): 1248-1254
DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1546169
Biological and Pharmacological Activity
Original Papers
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Gamma-Terpinene Modulates Acute Inflammatory Response in Mice

Theresa Raquel de Oliveira Ramalho
1   Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Centro de Ciências Exatas e da Natureza, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Celular e Molecular, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil
,
Maria Talita Pacheco de Oliveira
1   Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Centro de Ciências Exatas e da Natureza, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Celular e Molecular, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil
,
Ana Luisa de Araujo Lima
2   Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Produtos Naturais e Sintéticos Bioativos, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil
,
Claudio Roberto Bezerra-Santos
3   Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Departamento de Fisiologia e Patologia, Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil
,
Marcia Regina Piuvezam
1   Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Centro de Ciências Exatas e da Natureza, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Celular e Molecular, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil
2   Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Produtos Naturais e Sintéticos Bioativos, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil
3   Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Departamento de Fisiologia e Patologia, Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

received 06 October 2014
revised 06 May 2015

accepted 07 May 2015

Publication Date:
01 July 2015 (online)

Abstract

The monoterpene gamma-terpinene is a natural compound present in essential oils of a wide variety of plants, including the Eucalyptus genus, which has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma-terpinene on several in vivo experimental models of acute inflammation. Swiss mice were pretreated with gamma-terpinene and subjected to protocols of paw edema with different phlogistic agents such as carrageenan, prostaglandin-E2, histamine, or bradykinin. The microvascular permeability was measured by intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid and measuring the amount of protein extravasation. Carrageenan-induced peritonitis was used to analyze the effect of gamma-terpinene on inflammatory cell migration and cytokine production. We also developed an acute lung injury protocol to define the anti-inflammatory effect of gamma-terpinene. Mice pretreated with gamma-terpinene displayed reduced paw edema induced by carrageenan from 1–24 h after challenge. A similar reduction was observed when gamma-terpinene was administered after stimulation with PGE2, bradykinin, and histamine. Treatment with gamma-terpinene also inhibited fluid extravasation in the acetic acid model of microvascular permeability. In a carrageenan-induced peritonitis model, gamma-terpinene treatment reduced neutrophil migration as well as the production of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α when compared to nontreated animals, and in the acute lung injury protocol, gamma-terpinene diminished the neutrophil migration into lung tissue independently of the total protein extravasation in the lung. These data demonstrate that, in different models of inflammation, treatment with gamma-terpinene alleviated inflammatory parameters such as edema and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, as well as cell migration into the inflamed site, and that this monoterpene has anti-inflammatory properties.