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Isoeugenol accelerates wound healing by attenuating pro-inflammatory markers and chemokine expression in diabetic mice
Diabetes can delay wound healing by prompting long-term inflammation; delayed maturation of granulation tissues and inhibition of angiogenesis. Isoeugenol, a phenylpropene, is present in many plants including calamus, savory, basil, clove, tuberose, jonquil, nutmeg, sandalwood, dill seed, mace, gardenia, petunia etc. It can also be produced by isomerization of eugenol, present in significant amounts in clove, pimento, bay leaf, and cinnamon. Isoeugenol is used as a flavoring agent, in nonalcoholic drinks, baked foods, and chewing gums. In the present study, we investigated the effects of topical administration of isoeugenol (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg; daily in 200µL acetone) on excisional wound in diabetic Swiss albino mice. The five groups of Swiss albino mice were used (10 mice per group): group 1, the non-diabetic (normal control; NM); group 2, wound in non-diabetic mice (N+W); group 3, wound in diabetic mice (D+W); group 4, isoeugenol 50 mg/kg treated wounds in diabetic mice (D+W+L50); group 5, isoeugenol 100 mg/kg treated wounds in diabetic mice. Wound size was recorded every third days and after 14 days of treatment, the heparinized, whole blood and the wound tissue of all the groups was collected and tested. Isoeugenol-treated mice showed a significant decrease in wound size, pro-inflammatory markers and chemokine expression. Furthermore, histopathological examination showed complete re-epithelisation, decreased inflammatory cells and presence of granulation tissue in the isoeugenol treated mice. These characteristics suggest a beneficial role of isoeugenol in helping rebalance the wound environment in diabetic mice and therefore promote healing.