An Aggressive Plasmablastic Lymphoma of the Oral Cavity as Primary Manifestation of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Case Report and Literature Review
21 August 2014
14 November 2014
08 January 2015 (online)
Introduction Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare entity that was first described in the jaws and the oral cavity of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Plasmablastic lymphoma is considered as a diffuse, large, B-cell lymphoma with a unique phenotype and a predilection for the oral cavity.
Objective The authors describe a case of an aggressive plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity as the primary manifestation of AIDS.
Resumed Report We report a case of plasmablastic lymphoma involving only the oral cavity as the first manifestation of AIDS. Diagnosis was confirmed by the oral lesion biopsy and the histopathologic examination that showed a dense infiltrate composed of atypical lymphocytes with numerous plasmocytes that expressed the plasma cell markers MUM-1 and CD138 and that were negative for the B-cell markers CD3, CD20, and CD45. Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization revealed the Epstein-Barr virus genome in the atypical cells. Polymerase chain reaction was also positive for human herpesvirus-8 RNA.
Conclusion The HIV serologic status should be evaluated in all patients with plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity or extraoral sites.
- 1 Levine AM. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma. Blood 1992; 80 (1) 8-20
- 2 Gandhi MK, Khanna R. Viruses and lymphoma. Pathology 2005; 37 (6) 420-433
- 3 Takahashi H, Fujita S, Okabe H, Tsuda N, Tezuka F. Immunophenotypic analysis of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in the oral cavity. Pathol Res Pract 1993; 189 (3) 300-311
- 4 Delecluse HJ, Anagnostopoulos I, Dallenbach F , et al. Plasmablastic lymphomas of the oral cavity: a new entity associated with the human immunodeficiency virus infection. Blood 1997; 89 (4) 1413-1420
- 5 Castillo JJ, Furman M, Beltrán BE , et al. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated plasmablastic lymphoma: poor prognosis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Cancer 2012; 118 (21) 5270-5277
- 6 Tirelli U, Spina M, Gaidano G, Vaccher E, Franceschi S, Carbone A. Epidemiological, biological and clinical features of HIV-related lymphomas in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 2000; 14 (12) 1675-1688
- 7 Hansra D, Montague N, Stefanovic A , et al. Oral and extraoral plasmablastic lymphoma: similarities and differences in clinicopathologic characteristics. Am J Clin Pathol 2010; 134 (5) 710-719
- 8 Corti M, Villafañe MF, Bistmans A, Campitelli A, Narbaitz M, Baré P. Oral cavity and extra-oral plasmablastic lymphomas in AIDS patients: report of five cases and review of the literature. Int J STD AIDS 2011; 22 (12) 759-763
- 9 Rafaniello Raviele P, Pruneri G, Maiorano E. Plasmablastic lymphoma: a review. Oral Dis 2009; 15 (1) 38-45
- 10 Chang CC, Zhou X, Taylor JJ , et al. Genomic profiling of plasmablastic lymphoma using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH): revealing significant overlapping genomic lesions with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. J Hematol Oncol 2009; 2: 47
- 11 Sarode SC, Zarkar GA, Desai RS, Sabane VS, Kulkarni MA. Plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity in an HIV-positive patient: a case report and review of literature. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2009; 38 (9) 993-999
- 12 Tsachouridou O, Christoforidou A, Metallidis S , et al. Plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity, a B cell-derived lymphoma associated with HIV infection: a case series. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2012; 269 (6) 1713-1719
- 13 Cattaneo C, Facchetti F, Re A , et al. Oral cavity lymphomas in immunocompetent and human immunodeficiency virus infected patients. Leuk Lymphoma 2005; 46 (1) 77-81
- 14 Hamilton-Dutoit SJ, Raphael M, Audouin J , et al. In situ demonstration of Epstein-Barr virus small RNAs (EBER 1) in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphomas: correlation with tumor morphology and primary site. Blood 1993; 82 (2) 619-624
- 15 Colomo L, Loong F, Rives S , et al. Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas with plasmablastic differentiation represent a heterogeneous group of disease entities. Am J Surg Pathol 2004; 28 (6) 736-747