Bacillus anthracis sensitive to ethanol extracts from Brazilian savannah plants
Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive bacteria, spore-forming, the causal agent of anthrax. Infection may result from intradermal inoculation or inhalation of spores. Once inhaled, spores are transported by alveolar macrophages to lymph nodes surrounding the lungs, where they germinate subsequent go in into the blood, killing up to 99% of untreated victims. The most modern medications have efficacy against certain bacteria. However, several authors have been reported in parallel the good results of the herbal medicine for the treatment of many disease, including those caused by B. anthracis. The aim of this research was to test the ethanolic extract produced from leaves of Anacardium humile, Annona crassiflora, Byrsonima crassifolia and Eugenia dysenterica (selected by preliminary screening), using tests in vitro. Leaves were harvested in UPIS, Lagoa Bonita Farm, Planaltina-DF, Brazil. This material was dried at 37 °C, transformed into powder by a grinder and macerated with ethanol used for five days with stirring at room temperature. Then the extracts were harvested and filtered through a paper filter and concentrated using an evaporator at 50 °C. Finally, the extracts were stored at 4 °C. After, microbiological tests were carried out according to the method of Kirb-Bauer- modified. The sample tested showed sensitivity to ethanol extracts of A. humile (growth inhibition halo of 13 mm), A. crassiflora (13 mm), B. crassifolia (13 mm) and E. dysenterica (12 mm). The use of plants to treat various diseases has been extensively applied in medicine today. Literature data and the results show the excellent potential of plants for therapeutic treatment as adjunctive medication. However, it is extremely important that further studies be undertaken to elucidate the toxic effects and synergistic plants tested in this work.
Keywords: Bacillus anthracis