Hematopoietic activity of Moringa oleifera Lamark (drumstick) Leaf extract on murine models of anemia
Sickle cell anemia remains a challenging blood disorder in West Africa. Hemolytic anemia and vasoocclusive crisis are key pathophysiological features in affected individuals . The capacity of Moringa oleifera leaf extract to stimulate hematopoiesis in vivo in phenylhydrazine (PHZ) induced anemic mice was investigated. M. oleifera leaf extract was prepared using maceration. Thirty male Sprague Dawely rats (average body weight 121 g) were divided into six groups of five rats each. The control group (A) received water ad libitum while groups B, C, D, E and F were induced with anemia by intraperitoneal administration of PHZ 20 mg kg-1 body weight for 9 days . Following anemic induction, all groups except group (B) received treatment as follows. Group C, was treated with hydroxyurea (HU) 25 mg kg-1 , group (D) with M. oleifera extract (100 mg kg-1), group (E) with M. oleifera extract (200 mg kg-1) and group (F) with M. oleifera extract (400 mg kg-1). The treatments were given orally by gavage daily for 9 days. Blood samples collected from each rat and parameters analyzed.
Results (Fig 1) showed that PHZ induced rats group (B) showed significant decrease (P < 0.001) in hematocrit (PCV) levels compared to control group (A). Red blood cells (RBCs) and hemoglobin (Hb) were also reduced which are clear indications of anemia. Treatment with HU (group C) resulted in an increase in Hb, PVC and RBC levels but not significantly (P > 0.05) different from control group. M. oleifera treated groups (D, E and F) showed significant increase (P < 0.001) in PCV levels at all doses which are similar to the control group but higher than the HU treated group while RBC and Hb levels were not significantly different from control groups. We therefore suggest that the extract of M. oleifera leaves posses the capacity to increase hematopoietic activity and mitigate the PHZ induced anemia rats.
Keywords: Sickle Cell Anemia, Moringa Oleifera, Phenylhydrazine, Hydroxyurea, Hematopoietic activity
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