Oral Lesions and Their Implications on Swallowing In Patients with HIV
Introduction: Candidiasis, herpes, and Kaposi's sarcoma are the most common oral lesions in HIV patients. The greater the time of HIV infection and the viral load, the higher the risk of developing lesions.
Objectives: Analyze the swallowing in patients with oral lesions associated with HIV infection.
Methods: This study was done in ten patients, 80% with oral candidiasis and 20% with herpes zoster and candidiasis. Evaluation of oral sensory motor system and swallowing functional evaluation was performed.
Results: We observed increase oral transit time for pasty and solid food with moderate stasis in the oral cavity in 37.5% patients with oral candidiasis. In patients with herpes zoster and oral candidiasis, there was difficulty in oral uptake, absence of oral motor control, and inefficient preparation of pasty consistency. During liquids' evaluation, extraoral leak and impaired oral motor control were observed. There was normal swallowing for all consistencies on 62.5% of the patients with oral candidiasis and 37.5% of them had mild oral dysphagia. In patients with herpes zoster and candidiasis, 100% had severe oropharyngeal dysphagia requiring nasogastric tube.
Conclusion: The degree of oral lesions is often determined by CD4 and viral load. Patients may have significant alterations on speech, chewing, and swallowing depending on the extent and degree of the lesions. Once the injuries were identified, the speech pathologist should evaluate which food consistencies are safer and which compensations must be made to reduce stasis and improve oral motor control of the bolus.