Speech-Language Alterations in a Tropical Spastic Paraparesis’ Case
Introduction: The tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) is a disease caused by an impairment in the central nervous system, through the degeneration of nervous cells, whose etiology is related to an infection by the human T lymphotropic virus type 1, mainly present in the tropics. The characteristic alterations of the disease include motor and sensory impairment in the lower limbs. At least 50% of the patients with TSP have a certain degree of emotional and intellectual commitment.
Objectives: To characterize the speech‐language profile of a patient diagnosed with TSP.
Resumed Report: A 33-year-old patient (E.L.) was referred for the treatment with speech-language therapy, by the sector of Neurology of a Brazilian Hospital. In the speech-language evaluation, it was found oral miofunctional alterations: hypotonia of lips, tongue, and cheeks; diminished mobility on phonoarticulatory structures. At swallowing evaluation, it was identified alterations on oral and pharyngeal phases, which were confirmed in the video fluoroscopic swallow study “inadequacy in preparation, chewing, and ejection with solid foods; posterior premature escape to oral pharynges with liquids, doing fraction swallow in this consistency; stasis of solid food in valleculae, with difficulties in the clearing.” Beyond these alterations, it was found language impairment, with compromised oral comprehension, repetition, denomination, effort to speak, and perseveration.
Conclusion: The TSP is a disease that affects different areas related to speech-language as oral facial mobility, dysphagia and language. Speech-language treatment and monitoring is extremely important to people diagnosed with TSP.
Keywords: Tropical spastic paraparesis, language, dysphagia.