Prevalence of Risk Indicators for Hearing Loss in a Public Hospital
Introduction: The study of risk indicators for hearing loss in maternity allows the development of protocols with proper demographic profile enabling the targeting of prevention and promotion to hearing health.
Objective: The objective of this study was to verify the prevalence of risk indicators for hearing loss in newborns from a public hospital in 1 year.
Methodology: Retrospective cross-sectional study in a tertiary referral center. A survey of risk indicators for hearing loss in babies from the neonatal hearing screening program was carried out from January to December of 2012.
Results: A total of 1,514 infants were included in the study, 15% (n = 229) of them had the following risk factors for hearing loss: 37.9% low Apgar scores; 18.7% born weighing less than 1,500 g; 47.1% prolonged ICU stay; 20.9% required mechanical ventilation; 14.8% made use of ototoxic medication; 7.4% had syphilis; 3.9% meningitis; 3.4% congenital malformations; 3% genetic syndrome; 2.6% toxoplasmosis; 1.7% family history of hearing impairment; 0.87% hyperbilirubinemia, and 0.43% cytomegalovirus.
Conclusion: The most prevalent risk indicators were low Apgar score and prolonged stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. The analysis of these data and knowledge about the risk indicators for hearing loss are important for the newborn hearing screening, it allows the development of preventive actions and assists in monitoring and diagnosis of infants presenting these indicators.
Keywords: neonatal screening, hearing, risk index