Use of Vocal Self-Perception and Perceptual Voice Analysis for Detection Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Adults
This study aimed to investigate the use of self-perception and perceptual voice analysis to detect oropharyngeal dysphagia. A total of 27 individuals with and 25 without dysphagia, diagnosed by videofluoroscopy examination, were evaluated. Before the start of the this examination, subjects were asked about the perception of voice modification after swallowing and underwent recording of the sustained vowel /a/, which was also held after swallowing each consistency assessed in the examination (pasty, liquid, and solid). For perceptual evaluation, GRBAS (degree of change, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain) scale was used. Three blind judges as the study group and emission time performed voice analyzes. Concerning the results, it was found that individuals with dysphagia realized altering their vocal production after swallowing and showed a significant decrease of G and A parameters, and increased S after swallowing pasty food, significantly differentiating from individuals without dysphagia, which showed no change in these parameters after swallowing. Furthermore, increased vocal tension after swallowing is associated with the presence of food in vallecula and piriform recesses verified by videofluoroscopy. It appears that self-perception of the patient, as well as decreasing the degree of voice disorder and asthenia and increased vocal tension after swallowing are indicative of a swallowing disorder, increasing vocal tension in attempting to bleaching the vocal tract. Thus, it can be concluded that the modification of voice production after swallowing proved to be a reliable resource for detecting changes in swallowing.