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Laryngomalacia: A Case Report
Introduction: The laryngomalacia is defined as a disorder characterized by the collapse of the laryngeal cartilages during inspiration, with obstruction of the glottis. It is the most common congenital anomaly of the larynx, as well as the most frequent cause of intermittent stridor in children. Laryngomalacia resulting from a neuromuscular immaturity cause supraglottic hypotonia and bring these sagging structures during inspiration. The stridor is exacerbated by crying, shaking, or exercise and improves with neck extension. The diagnosis is made by bronchoscopy with the child breathing spontaneously.
Objective: The aim of this study is to report a case of laryngomalacia in children.
Resumed Report: The patient (M.D.J.) was referred from Pocos de Caldas, Brazil, with the diagnosis of laryngomalacia. The patient had respiratory distress and difficulties in breast-feeding and dyspnea. New fiberoptic laryngoscopy was performed confirming moderate laryngomalacia and supraglottic cyst. After surgical patient showed clinical improvement, removal of cysts and incision in the aryepiglottic ligament was performed.
Conclusion: In most children, the prognosis is favorable, as airway obstruction is not severe, and the symptoms improve in patients younger than 2 years. However, in about 10% of patients, airway obstruction is severe and causes a number of complications such as apnea, cyanosis, respiratory failure, and cor pulmonale. Large series of patients with abnormalities of the larynx have shown that laryngomalacia is 50 to 75% of diagnoses are more affected than males.