Epidemiological Aspects of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis in Children from an Endemic Region of Bahia
Introduction: Leishmaniasis is a chronic, noncontagious infection caused by species of protozoa named Leishmania, transmitted to humans through infected animals and by female mosquito bite. In Bahia, Brazil, there are related cases of tegument form, with the skin and mucosal involvement. In the entire country, and especially in Bahia, there are an increased number of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis cases, both cutaneous and mucosal.
Objectives: The study aimed to describe the epidemiological profile, the behavior according to the clinical forms, and estimate the incidence coefficient of Leishmaniasis in children between 0 to 10 years who live in 5ª Regional Health Board, Bahia, since 2007 to 2011.
Methods: This is a descriptive study with secondary data analyses. There were confirmed cases in Information System for Notifiable Diseases of cutaneous and mucosal Leishmaniasis in children with 0 to 10 years, both male and female, who live in some places of the 5ª Regional Health Board, Bahia, from 2007 to 2011.
Results: A total 6,048 cases of Leishmaniasis have been notified. The incidence coefficient was linear and increasing. There was more cutaneous form (99% of the cases) than mucosal form (1% of the cases). The male to female ratio was 1.5:1.0. The clinical evolution to cure was observed in all cases.
Conclusion: Since it is not possible to eradicate the vectors and reservoirs, the control of Leishmaniasis is a challenge. Knowing the epidemiological profile helps establish more effective controls measures and implement effective healthcare actions.
Keywords: Leishmaniasis, epidemiology, children.