Inflammatory Profile in Children and Its Correlation to Obstructive Breathing Disorders during Sleep and to Obesity
Introduction: Respiratory disorders during sleep range from snoring to states of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with numerous clinical implications. Obesity is a known risk factor for OSA in adults. The prevalence of OSA in overweight (obese) children reaches up to 36%, hitting 60% when habitual snoring is present. Although inflammatory repercussions are known in adults, in children these consequences are still not well defined.
Objective: The study aimed to evaluate clinical reports of obstructive breathing disorders during sleep in obese and nonobese children, and to evaluate the inflammatory profile in OSA children, comparing the obese and the nonobese ones to control children.
Methods: In the study, 79 children were included and grouped according to BMI percentile, the absence of respiratory complaints, and polysomnographic diagnosis of OSA. The groups were divided into G1: nonobese OSA children, G2: obese OSA children, G3: obese children without OSA, and G4: controls. All of them answered an OSA-18 questionnaire for the evaluation of quality of life. Serum inflammatory markers—TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-10—were dosed and compared between the groups.
Results: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) values of group G1 (1.8674 ± 1.19), G2 (1.8634 ± 1.53), and G3 (1.36 ± 1.45) were statistically different than that of G4 (0.611 ± 0.4). G1 and G2 had higher numeric expression but no statistical significance to G3. The values of IL-6 and IL-10 showed no statistical difference. Quality of life was lower in all OSA children due to respiratory complaints.
Conclusion: The presence of OSA and obesity are independent risk factors for elevated levels of TNF, leading to a low-grade chronic inflammatory state and its risks.