Quality Assessment of Sleep and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Menopause
Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disease that takes a prominent role during menopause. During this period, there is an increase in the prevalence of the disease primarily driven by increased weight and the reduction in the levels of progesterone and estrogen that promote a kind of feminine protection for the development of OSA.
Objectives: The study aimed to assess the influence of menopause on clinical and polysomnographic parameters in women with complaints of snoring and/or daytime sleepiness.
Methods: Retrospective study by reviewing the medical records of 49 female patients with a body mass index (BMI) of 28.85 kg/m2, and mean age of 48.97 years.
Results: The postmenopausal (PM) women had an average BMI of 30.38 kg/m2 and premenopausal (PREM) 27.92 kg/m2, p = 0.044. The diurnal sleepiness measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale was 11.08 pm and 9.69 in the PREM, p = 0.012. The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 20 in PM and 15.89 in the PREM, p = 0.044. The average arousal rate was 7.19 and 4.74 for the PM and PREM, respectively (p = 0.023).
Conclusion: Menopause is a risk factor for the development of OSA and decreased sleep quality. During this period, there is increased daytime sleepiness, sleep fragmentation, and AHI. The main factors that contribute to this relationship, during menopause, are aging and obesity.