Important Factors in the Cognitive Development of Children with Hearing Impairment: Case Studies of Candidates for Cochlear Implants
16 January 2014
24 March 2014
23 June 2014 (eFirst)
Introduction The factors that affect the development of children with and without hearing disabilities are similar, provided their innate communication abilities are taken into account. Parents need to mourn the loss of the expected normally hearing child, and it is important that parents create bonds of affection with their child.
Objective To conduct a postevaluation of the development and cognition of 20 candidates for cochlear implants between 1 and 13 years of age and to observe important factors in their development.
Methods The following instruments were used in accordance with their individual merits: interviews with parents; the Vineland Social Maturity Scale; the Columbia Maturity Scale; free drawings; Bender and Pre-Bender testing; and pedagogical tests.
Results The results are described.
Conclusion Parental acceptance of a child's deafness proved to be the starting point for the child's verbal or gestural communication development, as well as for cognitive, motor, and emotional development. If the association between deafness and fine motor skills (with or without multiple disabilities) undermines the development of a child's speech, it does not greatly affect communication when the child interacts with his or her peers and receives maternal stimulation. Overprotection and poor sociability make children less independent, impairs their development, and causes low self-esteem. Further observational studies are warranted to determine how cochlear implants contribute to patient recovery.
- 1 Preisler G, Tvingstedt AL, Ahlström M. A psychosocial follow-up study of deaf preschool children using cochlear implants. Child Care Health Dev 2002; 28 (5) 403-418
- 2 Skinner BF. Verbal Behavior. New York, NY: Appleton Century Crofts; 1957
- 3 Chomsky N. Syntatic Structures. Berlim: 1957
- 4 Pinker S. Words and rules in the human brain. Nature 1997; 387 (6633) 547-548
- 5 Chomsky N, Belletti A, Rizzi L. Nature and Language, with an Essay on “The Secular Priesthood and the Perils of Democracy”. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 2002
- 6 Piaget J. Seis Estudos de Psicologia. 24 ed. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Forense Universitária; 2003
- 7 Vygotsky LS. A formação Social da Mente. São Paulo, Brazil: Martins Fontes; 1998
- 8 Tonietto L, Wagner GP, Trentini CM, Sperb TM, Pimenta Parente MAM. Interfaces entre funções executivas, linguagem e intencionalidade. Paidéia 2011; 21 (49) 247-255
- 9 Virole B. Psychologie de La Surdité. Bruxelles, France: De Boeck Université Publ; 1996
- 10 Carpenter M, Nagell K, Tomasello M. Social cognition, joint attention, and communicative competence from 9 to 15 months of age. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 1998; 63 (4) i-vi, 1–33
- 11 Tomasello M. Constructing a Language: A Usage-Based Theory of Language Acquisition. Harvard MA: Harvard University Press; 2005
- 12 Baron-Cohen S, Cox A, Baird G , et al. Psychological markers in the detection of autism in infancy in a large population. Br J Psychiatry 1996; 168 (2) 158-163
- 13 Roper L, Arnold P, Monteiro B. Co-occurrence of autism and deafness: diagnostic considerations. Autism 2003; 7 (3) 245-253
- 14 Deggouj N, Eliot MM. Toubles du comportement de type autistique et surdité chez l'enfant. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord) 2005; 126 (5) 365-367
- 15 Azema B, Virole B. Appareillage et tableaux cliniques de l'enfant sourd plurihandicapé. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord) 1993; 114 (4) 293-295
- 16 Gayda M, Saleh D. Surdité périphérique, surdité centrale, surdité psychique: les difficultés diagnostiques chez 1'enfant autiste. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord) 2004; 125 (5) 277-280
- 17 Baron-Cohen S, Leslie AM, Frith U. Does the autistic child have a “theory of mind”?. Cognition 1985; 21 (1) 37-46
- 18 Cicchetti DV, Sparrow SS, Carter A. Development and validation of a Vineland Adaptive Behavior Screening Instrument. Paper presented at: Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association; San Francisco, CA; 1991
- 19 EA. A generic scale of social maturity. Am J Orthopsychiatry 1935; 5: 180-188
- 20 Escala de Maturidade Mental Colúmbia—Casa do Psicólogo. 1ª edição. 2001
- 21 Bender Santucci J, Galifret G. Teste de Organização Perceptiva e Motora do Espaço de Bender e o Pré- Bender. [Prova gráfica]. In: Zazzo R, , ed. Manual para exame psicológico para crianças. São Paulo, Brazil: Mestre Jou; 1968
- 22 Poppovic AM. Alfabetização: Disfunções psiconeurológicas. São Paulo, Brazil: Vetor; 1968
- 23 Horn DL, Pisoni DB, Miyamoto RT. Divergence of fine and gross motor skills in prelingually deaf children: implications for cochlear implantation. Laryngoscope 2006; 116 (8) 1500-1506
- 24 Siegel LS, Saigal S, Rosenbaum P , et al. Predictors of development in preterm and full-term infants: a model for detecting the at risk child. J Pediatr Psychol 1982; 7 (2) 135-148
- 25 Wilson M. Six views of embodied cognition. Psychon Bull Rev 2002; 9 (4) 625-636
- 26 Berrettini S, Forli F, Genovese E , et al. Cochlear implantation in deaf children with associated disabilities: challenges and outcomes. Int J Audiol 2008; 47 (4) 199-208
- 27 Sahli S, Belgin E. Comparison of self-esteem level of adolescents with cochlear implant and normal hearing. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2006; 70 (9) 1601-1608
- 28 Marschark M, Spencer E. Deaf Studies, Language, and Education. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2003