Drug Res (Stuttg) 2015; 65(3): 125-132
DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1374599
Original Article
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of two Vitamin K1 Formulations in Rats

L. Ma
1  Center of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China
,
Y. Cao
1  Center of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China
,
L. Chen
1  Center of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China
,
Q. Xiao
2  Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China
,
J. Yang
3  Clinical Pharmacology Modelling & Simulation, GSK China R&D, Shanghai, China
,
J. Yang
1  Center of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

received 24 February 2014

accepted 29 March 2014

Publication Date:
24 April 2014 (online)

Abstract

Purpose:

Severe allergic reactions associated with the commercially available formulation of vitamin K1 injection (VKI) could be a result of polysorbate that was added to solubilize vitamin K1 (VK1). Hence, we sought to develop vitamin K1 lipid emulsion (VKLE) devoid of polysorbate, in order to reduce the clinical risk of severe allergic reactions. This study aims to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of VKLE in comparison to VKI in rats.

Methods:

Plasma concentration-time profiles of VK1 were investigated in rats after dosing VKLE or VKI at the range of 1–4 mg/kg. Tissue distribution of VKLE and VKI were investigated in rats at the dose of 2 mg/kg. The pharmacodynamics of VKLE and VKI were also studied by comparing their effects on coagulation factors (II/VII/IX/X) and prothrombin time in hypoprothrombinemic rats.

Results:

VKI demonstrated over-proportional increase in AUC at the dosage range of 1.0–4.0 mg/kg, whereas VKLE demonstrated a linear kinetics trend in general. Compared to VKI, VKLE could selectively deliver VK1 to the liver, spleen and heart. VKLE and VKI produced comparable maximal responses, in terms of coagulation factors and prothrombin time.

Conclusions:

VKLE and VKI demonstrated different pharmacokinetics but comparable pharmacodynamics in rats.