Different regulation of physiological and tumor angiogenesis in zebrafish by protein kinase D1 (PKD1)
Protein kinase D isoenzymes (PKDs, Prkds) are serine threonine kinases that belong to the CAMK superfamily. PKD1 is expressed in endothelial cells and is a major mediator of biological responses downstream of the VEGFR that are relevant for angiogenesis such as endothelial cell migration, proliferation and tubulogenesis in vitro. PKDs also play a critical role in tumor development and progression, including tumor angiogenesis. However, given the plethora of signaling modules that drive angiogenesis, the precise role of PKD1 in both physiological and tumor angiogenesis in vivo has not been worked out so far. This study aimed at dissecting the contribution of PKD1 to physiological blood vessel formation, PKD1 was found to be widely expressed during zebrafish development. As far as physiological angiogenesis was concerned, morpholino-based silencing of PKD1 expression moderately reduced the formation of the intersomitic vessels and the dorsal longitudinal anastomotic vessel in tg(fli1:EGFP) zebrafish. In addition, silencing of PKD1 resulted in reduced formation of the parachordal lymphangioblasts that serves as a precursor for the developing thoracic duct. Interestingly, tumor angiogenesis by HCT116 colon carcinoma cells was completely abolished in PKD1 morphants using the zebrafish/tumor xenograft angiogenesis assay.
Our data in zebrafish demonstrate that PKD1 contributes to the regulation of physiological angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis during zebrafish development and is essential for tumor angiogenesis of HCT116 cells.