The therapeutic role of Sesbania grandiflora as an inhibitor of Advanced Glycation Endproduct (AGE) formation and the discovery of lead compounds for managing hyperglycaemia
The purpose of the study is to evaluate Advanced Glycation Endproduct (AGE) and early glycation (HbA1c) inhibition by the greens of Sesbania grandiflora. The inhibition of the digestive enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and the evaluation of antioxidant capability were also carried out. Put together, the aim of the study is to reveal the scientific mechanism behind the usage of Sesbania grandiflora in the management of Diabetes mellitus. AGE inhibition was performed by incubating haemoglobin with glucose for three weeks and characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy. Inhibition of glycation formation was done on human blood and characterized by micro-column ion exchange chromatography. The enzymatic inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase was performed using starch and p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside as substrate. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by reducing power assay, nitric oxide scavenging and super oxide scavenging assay. Fatty acid profile and alkaloids were analysed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The extract turned to be a better inhibitor of AGEs. The fluorescence signals produced by the formation of AGEs were reduced in the presence of plant extracts. Fluorescence was calculated after subtracting respective plant extracts as control. In the early glycation inhibition assay, glycated blood samples showed an increase of HbA1c% from 3.95% to 9.56% in 22h. Methanol extract of Sesbania grandiflora greens inhibited the formation of early glycation by 50% (HbA1c-4.69%). The methanol extract of Sesbania grandiflora showed significant inhibition of α-amylase (52%) and α-glucosidase (56%). The methanol extract contains derivatives of piperidine, cinnamaldehyde and linolenic acid which were proven anti-diabetic agents. From our results we conclude that further investigation of Sesbania grandiflora toward anti-diabetic drugs will be fruitful.