Semin Thromb Hemost 2013; 39(06): 596-606
DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1348948
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Congenital Prothrombin Deficiency: An Update

Stefano Lancellotti
1  Department of Medical Sciences, Haemostasis and Thrombosis Service, Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome, Italy
,
Maria Basso
1  Department of Medical Sciences, Haemostasis and Thrombosis Service, Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome, Italy
,
Raimondo De Cristofaro
1  Department of Medical Sciences, Haemostasis and Thrombosis Service, Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome, Italy
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
12 July 2013 (online)

Abstract

Prothrombin (factor II [FII]) deficiency is a rare inherited coagulation disorder, having a prevalence of approximately 1 in 2,000,000. Two phenotypes can be distinguished: (1) true hypoprothrombinemia (type I deficiency), characterized by concomitantly low levels of the zymogen antigen; and (2) dysprothrombinemia (type II deficiency), characterized by the normal or near-normal synthesis of a dysfunctional protein. In the latter case, recent studies showed that particular mutations in the catalytic domain of active thrombin can even impair the enzyme interaction with antithrombin, favoring thromboembolic diseases. In some cases, hypoprothrombinemia associated with dysprothrombinemia was also described in compound heterozygous defects. Prothrombin is essential for the development of mammalian organisms. No living patient with undetectable plasma prothrombin has been reported to date. Prothrombin is encoded by a ≈21 kb gene located on chromosome 11 and containing 14 exons. Thirty-nine different mutations have been identified and characterized in prothrombin deficiency. Many of these are present in the catalytic site, whereas some involve regulatory domains, such as the anion-binding exosite I, the Na+-binding loop, and the light A-chain. Most hypoprothrombinemia-associated mutations are missense, but nonsense mutations leading to stop codons and one single nucleotide deletion have also been identified. Finally, recent developments in the therapy of congenital prothrombin deficiency are presented and discussed.