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Diagnosis and Surgical Management of Traumatic Cerebrospinal Fluid Oculorrhea: Case Report and Systematic Review of the Literature
26 December 2012
18 March 2013
23 May 2013 (online)
Background Oculorrhea, or cerebrospinal fluid leakage developing from a cranio-orbital fistula, is a rare development following traumatic injury.
Case Report A 22-year-old man involved in a motor vehicle accident developed a blowout fracture of the left orbital roof penetrating the frontal lobe, inducing oculorrhea. He underwent a supraorbital craniotomy for removal of the bony fragment and skull base reconstruction using a pericranial flap.
Methods A systematic review of the database was performed to identify all prior cases of traumatic oculorrhea.
Results Twenty-two reported cases met inclusion criteria for subsequent analysis. Oculorrhea developed due to blunt and penetrating head injury in 14 (64%) and 8 patients (36%), respectively. The most common mechanisms were car accidents, stab wounds, falls, and gunshot wounds. Ocular signs and symptoms—including visual loss, ophthalmoplegia, and pupillary dysfunction—were commonly associated findings. Initial conservative management was successful in four patients. Thirteen patients underwent initial surgical intervention, and three additional patients required operative intervention following failed conservative treatment.
Conclusion Although oculorrhea rarely develops following severe orbital trauma, suspicion should nevertheless be maintained to facilitate more prompt diagnosis and management. The decision for conservative versus surgical management often depends on the severity of the fracture and dural injury.
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