Int J Sports Med 2013; 34(07): 623-630
DOI: 10.1055/s-0032-1327662
Training & Testing
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

The Effect of Velocity on Load Range during Isokinetic Hip Abduction and Adduction Exercise

C. N. Gautrey
1   Sport, Health and Exercise, University of Hertfordshire, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom
T. Watson
2   Physiotherapy, University of Hertfordshire, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom
A. Mitchell
1   Sport, Health and Exercise, University of Hertfordshire, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

accepted after revision 12 September 2012

Publication Date:
26 February 2013 (online)


The purpose of this study was to quantify the components of acceleration, load range and deceleration through a velocity spectrum during concentric hip abduction and adduction isokinetic exercise, and to investigate the effect of load range on peak torque and work done. 16 male healthy subjects performed 3 maximal concentric reciprocal hip abduction and adduction gravity corrected repetitions in a fixed order at 60, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360 and 420° · s−1, with a 30 s rest between velocities. Hip abduction and adduction results revealed that load range significantly decreased while acceleration and deceleration ROM significantly increased (p<0.05) with each increase in velocity. When the total peak torque data was corrected for load range there was a significant decrease (p<0.05) in peak torque at velocities of 300° · s−1 and above, for both hip abduction and adduction. Load range correction also resulted in a significant decrease (p<0.05) in work done at velocities of 120° · s−1 and above, for both hip abduction and adduction. The results demonstrate an inverse relationship between isokinetic velocity and load range during concentric hip abduction and adduction, and suggest a need for the clinician to carefully consider velocity selection when performing exercise on an isokinetic device.

  • References

  • 1 Beckman SM, Buchanan TS. Ankle inversion injury and hypermobility: Effect on hip and ankle muscle electromyography onset latency. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1995; 76: 1138-1143
  • 2 Brown LE, Sjostrom T, Comeau MJ, Whitehurst M, Greenwood M, Findley BW. Kinematics of biophysically asymmetric limbs within rate of velocity development. J Strength Cond Res 2005; 19: 298-301
  • 3 Brown LE, Whitehurst M. Load range. In: Brown LE. (ed.). Isokinetics in Human Performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers; 2000: 97-121
  • 4 Brown LE, Whitehurst M. The effect of short term isokinetic training on force and rate of velocity development. J Strength Cond Res 2003; 17: 88-94
  • 5 Brown LE, Whitehurst M, Bryant JR, Buchalter DN. Reliability of the Biodex System 2 isokinetic dynamometer concentric mode. Isokin Exerc Sci 1993; 3: 160-163
  • 6 Brown LE, Whitehurst M, Findley BW. Reliability of rate of velocity development and phase measures on an isokinetic device. J Strength Cond Res 2005; 19: 189-192
  • 7 Brown LE, Whitehurst M, Findley BW, Gilbert R, Buchalter DN. Isokinetic load range during shoulder rotation exercise in elite male junior tennis players. J Strength Cond Res 1995; 9: 160-164
  • 8 Brown LE, Whitehurst M, Gilbert R, Buchalter DN.. The effect of velocity and gender on load range during knee extension and flexion exercise on an isokinetic device. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1995; 21: 107-112
  • 9 Claiborne TL, Timmons MK, Pincivero DM.. Test-retest reliability of cardinal plane isokinetic hip torque and EMG. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2009; 19: 345-352
  • 10 Davies GJ. (ed.). A Compendium of Isokinetics in Clinical Usage. Onalaska, WI: S & S Publishers; 1992: 98
  • 11 Emery CA, Maitland ME, Meeuwisse WH.. Test-retest reliability of isokinetic hip adductor and flexor muscle strength. Clin J Sport Med 1999; 9: 79-85
  • 12 Ferber R, McClay-Davis I, Williams DS.. Gender differences in lower extremity mechanics during running. Clin Biomech 2003; 18: 350-357
  • 13 Findley BW, Brown LE, Whitehurst M, Keating T, Murray DP, Gardner LM.. The influence of body position of load range during isokinetic knee extension/flexion. J Sports Sci Med 2006; 5: 400-406
  • 14 Friel K, McLean N, Myers C, Caceres M.. Ipsilateral hip abductor weakness after inversion ankle sprain. J Athl Train 2006; 41: 74-78
  • 15 Gautrey CN, Watson T, Mitchell A.. The effect of isokinetic testing speed on the reliability of muscle fatigue indicators during a hip abduction-adduction fatigue protocol. Int J Sports Med 2012; 33: 1-8
  • 16 Hamdoun-Kahlaoui S, Lebib S, Miri I, Ghorbel S, Koubaa S, Rahali-Khachlouf H, Ben Salah FZ, Dziri C.. Isokinetic evaluation and rehabilitation of the knee in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. J Readapt Med 2010; 30: 3-11
  • 17 Hammami N, Coroian FO, Julia M, Amri M, Mottet D, Herisson C, Laffont I.. Isokinetic muscular strengthening after acquired cerebral damage: a literature review. Ann Phys Rehabil Med 2012; 55: 279-291
  • 18 Harriss DJ, Atkinson G.. Update – ethical standards in sport and exercise science research. Int J Sports Med 2011; 32: 819-821
  • 19 Jacobs C, Uhl TL, Seeley M, Sterling W, Goodrich L.. Strength and fatigability of the dominant and nondominant hip abductors. J Athl Train 2005; 40: 203-206
  • 20 Johnson ME. Millie ML, Martinez KM, Crombie G, Rogers MW. Age-related changes in hip abductor and adductor joint torques. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; 85: 593-597
  • 21 Kovaleski JE, Heitman RH, Trundle TL, Gilley WF. Isokinetic preload versus isokinetic knee extension resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995; 27: 895-899
  • 22 Kurdak SS, Ozgunen K, Adas U, Zeren C, Aslangiray B, Yazici Z, Korkmaz S. Analysis of isokinetic knee extension/flexion in male elite adolescent wrestlers. J Sports Sci Med 2005; 4: 489-498
  • 23 Laheru D, Kerr JC, McGregor AH. Assessing hip abduction and adduction strength: Can greater segmental fixation enhance reproducibility?. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2007; 88: 1147-1153
  • 24 Makofsky H, Panicker S, Abbruzzese J, Aridas C, Camp M, Drakes J, Franco C, Sileo R. Immediate effect of grade IV inferior hip joint mobilization on hip abductor torque: a pilot study. J Man Manip Ther 2007; 15: 103-111
  • 25 McNair PJ, Depledge J, Brettkelly M, Stanley SN. Verbal encouragement: effects on maximum effort voluntary muscle action. Br J Sports Med 1996; 30: 243-245
  • 26 Murray DP, Brown LE, Zinder SM, Noffal GJ, Bera SG, Garrett NM. Effects of velocity specific training on rate of velocity development, peak torque and performance. J Strength Cond Res 2007; 21: 870-874
  • 27 Nickols-Richardson SM, Miller LE, Wooten DF, Ramp WK, Herbert WG. Concentric and eccentric isokinetic resistance training similarly increases muscular strength, fat-free soft tissue mass, and specific bone mineral measurements in young women. Osteoporos Int 2007; 18: 789-796
  • 28 O’Dwyer C, Sainsbury D, O’Sullivan K. Gluteus medius muscle activation during isometric muscle contractions. J Sports Rehabil 2011; 20: 174-186
  • 29 Osternig LR. Optimal isokinetic loads and velocities producing muscular power in human subjects. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1975; 56: 152-155
  • 30 Osternig LR. Isokinetic dynamometry: implications for muscle testing and rehabilitation. In: Pandolf KB. (ed.). Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews. New York, USA: Macmillan Publishing Company; 1986: 45-80
  • 31 Osternig LR. Assessing human performance. In: Brown LE. (ed.). Isokinetics in Human Performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers; 2000: 77-96
  • 32 Osternig LR, Sawhill JA, Bates BT, Hamill J. Function of limb speed on torque patterns of antagonist muscles. In: Matsui H, Kobayashi K. (eds.). Biomechanics. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers; 1983: 251-257
  • 33 Piva SR, Teixeira PE, Almeida GJ, Gil AB, DiGioia AM, Levison TJ, Fitzgerald GK. Contribution of hip abductor strength to physical function in patients with total knee arthroplasty. Phys Ther 2011; 91: 225-233
  • 34 Reid D. (ed.). Assessment and Rehabilitation of Sports Injury. New York, USA: Churchill Livingstone; 1992: 43
  • 35 Salavati M, Moghadam M, Ebrahimi I, Arab AM. Changes in postural stability with fatigue of lower extremity frontal and sagittal plane movers. Gait Posture 2007; 26: 214-218
  • 36 Scibelli A, Brown LE, Whitehurst M, Bryant JR, Buchalter DN. Load time during bilateral isokinetic knee extension/flexion. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1993; 25: 108
  • 37 Taylor NAS, Sanders RH, Howick EI, Stanley SN. Static and dynamic assessment of the Biodex dynamometer. Eur J Appl Physiol 1991; 62: 180-188
  • 38 Timm KE, Fyke D. The effect of test speed sequence on the concentric isokinetic performance of the knee extensor muscle group. Isokin Exerc Sci 1993; 3: 123-128
  • 39 Widrick JJ, Trappe SW, Costill DL, Fitts RH. Force-velocity and force-power properties of single muscle fibres from elite master runners and sedentary men. Am J Physiol 1996; 271: C676-C683
  • 40 Wilk KE, Arrigo CA, Andrews JA. Isokinetic testing of the shoulder abductors and adductors: windowed vs. nonwindowed data collection. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1992; 15: 107-112
  • 41 Wilk KE, Romaniello WT, Soscia SM, Arrigo CA, Andrews JR. The relationship between subjective knee scores, isokinetic testing, and functional testing in the ACL reconstructed knee. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1994; 20: 60-70