Endoscopic clip tamponade of bleeding: a novel adjunct technique for endoscopic mucosal resection
22 March 2013 (online)
Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of large nonpolypoid neoplasms of the colon may be complicated by immediate, early (first 24 hours), or delayed bleeding . Endoscopic hemostasis of immediate bleeding can be achieved by epinephrine injection, cauterization of the bleeding site, and mechanical tamponade by resnaring the stalk or deployment of a band, clip, or detachable snare    .
Inadvertent entrapment of tumor tissue during clip deployment to control immediate bleeding after snare resection during piecemeal EMR may interfere with further snare resections and require surgery, as highlighted by patient #1 ([Table 1]; [Fig. 1]). This problem could be easily overcome using a novel technique of “endoscopic clip tamponade” (ECT) for 3 minutes to control bleeding followed by reopening of the clip and completion of the EMR procedure, as described in patients #2 – #4 ([Table 1]).
Piecemeal EMR was undertaken with a stiff snare after injection of indigo carmine solution into the submucosa to lift the lesion ([Fig. 2 a]). With this technique, bleeding after first resection was controlled using the technique of endoscopic clip tamponade ([Fig. 2 b]). After the bleeding site was localized with a water jet, a clip with a reopening function (Resolution Clip, Boston Scientific, Natick, Massachusetts, USA) was applied immediately to the bleeding site. If bleeding persisted, the clip was reopened and reapplied more accurately to achieve hemostasis. Once hemostasis had been confirmed, the clip was held in place for a minimum of 3 minutes. It was then reopened and removed from the operating field. Resection of the remaining polyp was completed ([Fig. 2 c]), and the EMR defect was closed with clips ([Video 1]).
We demonstrated that endoscopic clip tamponade controlled arterial bleeding and allowed successful completion of the EMR. Hasty deployment of clips to control arterial bleeding prior to completion of the resection may preclude subsequent endoscopic resection and require surgery.
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